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Chapter Summary Notes Midterm 1.docx

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PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

Chapter Summary NotesChapter 1William Wundt1st experimental psychology labPsychology is the scientific study if behaviour and the mind The term behaviour refers to actions and responses that we can directly observe whereas the mind refers to internal states and processes such as thoughts and feelings that cannot be seen directly and that must be inferred from observable measurable responsesThe primary goals of psychological science are to describe explain predict and influence behaviour and to apply psychological knowledge to enhance human welfareBasic research is the quest for knowledge for its own sake whereas applied research involves the application of knowledge derived from basic research to solve practical problemsSeveral perspectives have shaped psychologys scientific growth Each perspective views human nature differently and focuses on different causes of behaviourPsychologys intellectual roots lie in philosophy biology and medicine In the late 1800s Wundt and James helped found psychology Structuralism which examined the basic components of consciousness and functionalism which focused on the purposes of consciousness were psychologys two earliest schools of thoughtThe psychodynamic perspective calls attention to unconscious motives conflicts and defence mechanisms that influence personality and behaviour Freuds psychoanalytic theory emphasized unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses and early childhood experiences that shape personalityFreudCarl JungWith roots in 18thcentruy British empiricism the behavioural perspective emphasizes how the external environment and learning shape behaviour Behaviourist such as Watson and Skinner believed that psychology should study only observable stimuli and responses not unobservable mental processes They argued that the key to changing behaviour is modifying the environment Behaviourists discovered basic laws of learning through controlled research with laboratory animals and successfully applied these principles to enhance human welfareWatsonSkinnerPavlov
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