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Final

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2330
Professor
Francesco Leri
Semester
Fall

Description
1/21/2013 4:11:00 PM WEEK 9- MULTIPLE MEMORY SYSTEMS  when you have an experience in life, there will be various learning & memory systems that are active at the same time. o some will tap on certain systems more than others. o all these learning systems will be active at the same time. Declarative Memory System (S-S)  The amnesic patient H.M. o  In 1933, Henry M. had a bicycle accident and was unconscious for 5 min. Three years later he began to have minor seizures. By 21, he would have 10 minor attacks per day and 1 major per week. No medication worked.  In 1953 (Henry was 27), Dr. Scoville performed a bilateral medial temporal lobe resection.  (epilepsy related to temporal lobe)  -if something goes wrong in temporal lobe, it spreads to rest of the brain (is the 'beginning'). if you eliminate this area, you could possibly reduce the spread (of seizures).  -they cut out the temporal lobe on both sides of the brain, but they couldn’t be selective (and weren’t trying to be).  the fold of cortex removed had the HIPPOCAMPUS. o Seizure activity was greatly reduced, but he developed major memory loss  Anterograde Amnesia   unable to create new learning/memories  -living 'moment to moment.'  -intellect intact, see's everything as others do, but every moment feels like a 'first awakening' and the first experience of everything.   it was selective of where it went (only temporal lobe).  if it was results of a disease, other things would have been affected as well such as the frontal lobe. not him, his affect was not altered, he was aware of memory disorder.  Observations:  - participated in social activities  - watched TV and solved crossword puzzles  - never asked for food or beverage, or to go to bed  - placid and polite  - aware of his memory disorder  - John McDonald (video)  when confronted with the diary, refuses that he wrote in the diary, gets very angry because he is perfectly lucid but can not have knowledge of himself doing it. o H.M. memory disorder was selective in five important ways  (1) Higher-order perceptual, motor, and cognitive functions not affected  - above average IQ  - recognizes and names common objects  - normal language  (2) Loss the capacity for new learning  (Anterograde Amnesia)  -He scored 0 on tests that assess the persistence of his memory for stories, lists of words and numbers, pictures, or any of a large range of other material.  (3) The span of short-term memory was normal, but devastated by delays  -could repeat series of numbers back to you, but then would look at the instructor and have no idea who he was, and completely forget he was learning numbers.  (4) Spared remote memory  -most remote (prior) memories were spared. Selective problem in learning only new information.  (5) Spared other domains of learning and memory capacity  Sensory-motor learning (Star-Mirror Drawing task)  Task: o -draw star inside a star, then only watch yourself drawing through a mirror, and try to draw line in between the 2 lines. o going left makes you go right & reverse. you see that with time people get much better. (learning the task)  HM was able to learn the task, and was even saving memory day to day. o -if you asked him, he would say he had never done the task before, didn't know who you are.  simple disassociation  one part of his brain was gone, he could perform sensory-motor learning task, but couldn’t tell you about learning it prior or where/when he learned it.  Perceptual learning (Gollins partial pictures task)  Task: o -shown different cards of same image, progressively get more detailed. o -testing over & over, you get much better at telling what the un-detailed images meant. (memory or perception from past)  HM was able to get faster at indentifying the final object with less cards. he experienced perceptual learning, but was unaware of doing the task before.  Verbal priming - word stem completion task o  shown series of words over & over, then tested for recollection.  Tests   free recall  (just tell words you read)   cued recall  (association?)   word completion  (given beginning of word & your free to complete it) o  amnesia patients were devastated in free recall, but could perform cued recall & completion normally. meaning repetition.....*?*  Eye blink conditioning o Delay conditioning o Normal acquisition o Normal extinction  Trace conditioning impaired  -when there was a time delay between CS & US, couldn’t do it. (trace conditioning)  Habitual learning o Association of specific patterns of visual stimuli with specific motor sequences.  ex. will learn to do it very well, as long as it was based on repetition and reoccurring information.  (HM could do this)  -indicated that memory is not 1 entity, there are multiple forms  -what is processed in hippocampus/cortex around it  (declaritive memory)  -and whats processed somwhere else...  (procedural memory) o STRUCTURE OF MEMORY  HM was unable to use declarative memory, but was able to use procedural memory  -may completely loose declarative component, and still maintain procedural component (and reverse).  (1) Declarative  Facts and events that require conscious recollection and that can be expresses explicitly  Hippocampus + cortex around it  (2) Procedural  Skills and preferences that can be acquired and expressed unconsciously  -pattern of motor responding/perception  -difficult to express using your declarative means.  -how to tell someone how to perform a task well.. its difficult & wont help them/make them better (ex. star task, driving standard), they need to practice. o Problems with using humans to study memory (need to use animals!)  1. Anatomical specificity  -it is difficult with humans to control & still be ethically okay. cant just cut pieces out of human brains, can be anatomically specific with animals. 2. Unknown experiences  -with humans we all have had different experiences through life, all have slightly different brain functions (ex. left vs right handed). but with animals we can rear them in same environments, and control to some degree their experiences.  Ex. taxi drivers in London have a larger area of hippocampus, b/c they must be very good at spatial learning. (brains are different!) QUESTION: which of the following is true:  q) HM lost the ability to learn anything new  b) the hippocampus is involved in procedural learning  c) HM had his striatum removed surgically  d) HM lost the ability to create new declarative memories  e) the striatum is involved in declarative memory Procedural Memory System (S-R)  simulus-response learning o skills  motor skills, response skills, etc  (ex. music-learned & can be practiced) o habits  habit of responding  (ex. rats turning, way we open fridges, how we respond to food)  proceduaral memory- S-S learning or S-R learning? o (is it a motor habit, or are they thinking about what they're going to do?) o Cognitive Map (Tolman):  “Response or place strategies”  -rat is placed in t-maze, turns right at choice point  (habit- S-R)  -..but cognitive psychologist believe that the animal is going towards the door, and creating a cognitive map of the environment to where the food is.  -not making a simple response, they are navigating the environment.  -this is spatial learning o (S-S, map is collection of stimuli)  -is it a habit (S-R) or cognitive navigation (S-S) ?  -to find out.. turn the maze around! depending on the response, you can determine if they learned a place strategy (cognitive map- S-S) or response strategy (S-R).  Results  it is borth S-S and S-R response ! (they do both)  - depends on which stage of training they do test o (how many training sessions)  -if trained a little bit  most animals will use 'place,' turn left when tested in reverse maze o (S-S, cognitive map)  -after a lot of training  most animals will then use a response strategy, turn right when in reverse maze. o (S-R) o  goes form 1 type of strategy to another, (S-S place learning to S-R response learning) means there is a shift from processing in 1 unit of the brain, to another unit.  STRIATUM o Regulation of voluntary movements; planning, initiation & learning motor behavior  Affected in Parkinson’s disease  -region that suffers of lack of dopamine in Parkinson’s disease. these people have a selective loss of dopamine cells to this region of the brain.  -they are NOT paralyzed, their problem is with initiation & learning of motor behaviour.  -these people have dysfunctional striatum’s.  KEY: if you want to study lesions in striatum, just use Parkinson’s patients! o Packard and McGaugh (1996)  RAT Experiment:   normal rats who are trained a bit, will use place-strategy, after 2 weeks, they switch to response strategy.  -go from 1 region of brain to using other.  -inject lidocane to particular regions of the brain, which is a local anesthetic. (works as a temporary lesion, of shutting of that region of the brain).  -inject hippocampus, then few weeks latter inject in striatum.  Graph:  2 ndbar –have hippocampus taken away  3 rdbar- have striatum taken away o –in first stage  -animals need the hippocampus to show place strategy- but not the striatum! o –second re-test stage:  -animals don't need the hippocampus, but they need the striatum to show response strategies (its become habitual)  Results:  Initial maze task (little training) o -inject hippocampus  devastates performance o -inject striatum  doesn’t have effect.  Second maze task (a lot of training) o -inject hippocampus> devastates performance still o -inject striatum > also devastates performance.   from place to habit response  HUMAN experiment:   sit people in front of cards and train them to predict what the pattern of the weather will be based on the pattern of cards you show them.  -guess at first, then with repetition you figure it out. (repetitive, visual-motor procedural task)  -tests the declarative aspect of the memory o (colours shape)  *?*  Results:  -people with amnesia learn  -people with control learn  -people with Parkinson’s do NOT learn.  Emotional Memory System (S-Affect)  AMYGDALA o Lesions alter a wide range of emotional behaviors and physiological responses Block emotional learning such as fear conditioning  -in temporal lobe, in front of hippocampus.  -multiple components to amygdala.  -if you have large lesion to the amygdala, where it is completely gone, you lose your ability to regulate your emotinal responses to everything.  ex. monkey lose abilities to respond properly to apprpriate stimuli & their physiological responses.  -if lesion is more specific, may not loose ability completely, but will learn the ability of learning from stimuli.  (classical condtioning)  Experiment in Humans (Damasio) o Patients:  Patient 1: Urbach-Wiethe disease  -neurological disorder that produces degeneration of temporal lobe & amygdala.  Patient 2: hypoxia/ischemia  -lack of oxygen/blood flow to brain from stroke/accident. first region to go is hippocampus.  Patient 3: Herpes simplex encephalitis  -amygdala & hippocampus no longer work. o experiment:  CONTROL:  -there is a light/tone (CS) that is predictive of a boat horn (US), you get a fear (CR).  -measure response by skin response  -if you do this over & over, once you present the CS, you also get the response.  HIPPOCAMPUS:  -lesion doesn't effect classical conditi
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