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Study Guide

[PSYC 2330] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (64 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2330
Professor
Francesco Leri
Study Guide
Final

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UofG
PSYC 2330
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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UNIT 1
Jan 9th, 16
POL Lecture 1
Basic Elements of Learning
Environment
o Internal
o External
There is always a stimulus
Between the stimulus and the response is the brain
Behaviour
Memory
Stimulus (pl. stimuli)
A detectable change in the internal and external environment
o Neutral stimulus that does nothing
o Appetitive (incentive) stimulus that produces an approach
o Aversive
Response
Response: a quantifiable reaction to a stimulus
o Autonomic responses - responses that the body cannot control
o Somatic response controlled responses
Behaviour
A set of responses of organism, usually in relation to environmental stimuli
1. Instinctual: genetically programmed behaviours that occurs when
circumstances are appropriate and that require no learning
2. Learned: Behaviours adapted to the environment, relatively flexible
and open to modifications
Instinct Theories
Psychological
o William James (1842-1910) philosopher and psychologist known as
the Father of American psychology
o Influenced by the natural selection the core of James’ theory of
psychology was a system of instincts
These instincts could be overridden by experience and by each
other (as many of the instincts were usually in conflict with
each other)
o Instincts are motivators of behaviour they are impulses coming from
within the organism that lead to the initiation of behaviour
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Biological
o Ethology (Kondrad Lorenz & Niko Tinbergen)
Instincts:
They are behaviours
Exist because they have, or had, survival value
Controlled by genes, and therefore they are not learned
However, instinctive behaviours differ in terms of
degree of sensitivity to changes in the environment
1. Appetitive
Searching behaviours that are flexible,
adapted to the environment, and subject
to modification through learning
2. Consummatory
Fixed patterns of responding to specific
stimuli
These behaviours are rigid, insensitive to
the environment, highly stereotyped and
independent from learning
These behaviours are known as Fixed
Action Patterns
*All behaviours need a stimulus and some energy
Stimulus
Sign (key) stimuli
Social releasers
o Releases a behaviour from another person
o Ex. Yawning
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