PSYC 2330 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Medial Forebrain Bundle, Striatum, Memory Consolidation
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Principles of Learning Midterm 2 Review
Primary reinforcing stimuli:
a. Are only stimuli needed for survival (some primary stimuli do not have survival value -> e.g. cocaine)
b. Possess unconditioned motivational value
c. Are rewarding (could be rewarding…rewarding implies a liking, a reinforcing stimulus could be reward, but a reward is NOT
ALWAYS reinforcing. E.g. eat all of the strawberries in store, feel sick, offered more, but you are full so it doesn’t change
d. Reward good behaviours (reinforcing stimulus reinforces not rewards, and could be any behaviour)
e. None of the above
Stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB):
a. Maintains self-stimulation behaviour
b. Feels great (don’t know how it feels!)
c. Is rewarding (concept of reward does not make sense)
d. Can also be used to punish behaviour
e. Has no effect on memory consolidation (DOES enhance memory consolidation)
Which of the following schedules results in a conditioned or primary reinforcer after every target behaviour?
a. Fixed interval (every set # of times, based on time, not # of responses)
b. Variable interval (at variable time, not based on responses)
c. Fixed ratio (when ratio is 1:1, then it is correct, depends on ratio)
d. Variable ratio (this is average, not every response)
e. Continuous reinforcement schedule
- Slides from end of week 6 (dopamine and wanting/liking)
o Decrease of dopamine in areas that are usually high in dopamine
o In neostriatum there is a 90% decrease of dopamine
o With lower dopamine the don’t go to food (don’t show wanting of food)
o But if you put something sweet in their mouth they will have a pleasurable reaction (still show liking/disliking of food)
- Attribution of conditioned motivation
o Look at learned vs. unlearned
o Motivator -> stimulus that has motivational value
o E.g. a strawberry will have unlearned/unconditioned motivation, place in store where there is strawberries becomes a
conditioned stimulus because that is where you find strawberries. When you enter the store you know there are
strawberries, you know to go to that space. That space is now a learned motivator; you follow certain actions to go to
that place. Strawberries attributed its value to the space, it gives motivational value to a neutral stimulus.
- Paradoxical reward effects (positive reinforcement)
o Situations where you remove reinforce (after it maintains behaviour), logic suggests behaviour should stop immediately.
But it sometimes doesn’t, and often becomes stronger for a period of time.
o Incorrectly titled ‘rewards’
o Typically seen in extinction
- Stimulation of reticular formation -> enhances memory formation
o Don’t necessarily need to know where it is etc.
- Proprioceptive conditioned reinforcers
o Proprio = yours, ceptive = perception
Sensation of your own body
o Your sensation of what you are doing can be used by the brain as a stimulus, you can feel the response you make, this
stimulus can be reinforced
o Without being aware you can reinforce a particular sensation so next time you are more likely to repeat to obtain that
sensation, keep performing that movement
o Stimulus is predictive of reinforcer, and becomes conditioned stimulus
o Get reinforced by making the response
o E.g. the rat always had to go to the right to get food, they sensed the direction and reinforced the behaviour of going to
- Week 8 Positive punishment – self injurious behaviour (Is punishment effective? Slide)
o Researcher measure # of self-destructive behaviour of child, and punishes it (indicated by arrow), behaviour stops. Then
different researchers come in, each time new person, behaviour comes back a little bit. Original researcher comes in and
delivers shock. When other people come in, behaviour comes back.
E. g. eat all of the strawberries in store, feel sick, offered more, but you are full so it doesn"t change behaviour: reward good behaviours (reinforcing stimulus reinforces not rewards, and could be any behaviour, none of the above. Stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (mfb): maintains self-stimulation behaviour, feels great (don"t know how it feels!, can also be used to punish behaviour, has no effect on memory consolidation (does enhance memory consolidation) Is rewarding (concept of reward does not make sense) Slides from end of week 6 (dopamine and wanting/liking) When you enter the store you know there are strawberries, you know to go to that space. That space is now a learned motivator; you follow certain actions to go to that place. Strawberries attributed its value to the space, it gives motivational value to a neutral stimulus. Paradoxical reward effects (positive reinforcement: situations where you remove reinforce (after it maintains behaviour), logic suggests behaviour should stop immediately.