Study Guides (247,934)
Canada (121,177)
Psychology (951)
PSYC 2360 (36)
Midterm

MIDTERM 1 LECTURE NOTES

34 Pages
104 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2360
Professor
Carol Anne Hendry
Semester
Winter

Description
Introductory Research Methods WEEK 1 Ways of Knowing • Logic o Incorporated into scientific method o But logic alone is not enough - truth can seem strange. (e.g., Semmelweis and hand washing) • Authority: "Expert says" (expert bias) • Popularity: “Everyone knows that” - truth is not a popularity contest • Experience o Humans are not so perfect that we learn perfectly from experience  We don’t always see what we think we see.  Our memories are unreliable.  Humans are generally hypothesis-confirmers - not testers o Our experience may not be typical  “Astopped clock is right twice a day."  Lottery winners' experience is that playing the lottery is profitable • Intuition o Wishful thinking?  Economist quoted as saying "stock prices have reached what looks like a permanently high plateau" a few weeks before. Stock Market Crash of 1929 (right before the Great Depression.) o Is "intuition" a fancier word for "opinion"? o How do we deal with conflicting intuitions? • Faith o Good for answering questions that are unanswerable by science  Moral questions (what "should" we do – abortion, capital punishment) Introductory Research Methods  Metaphysical questions (Is there a God?) o Not available to everyone: Atheists, agnostics. o Can be supplemented by the scientific method when testing propositions about physical reality – does prayer speed healing? • In psychology, we obtain information in several ways: o Conferences conducted by organizations such as APAand CPA; o Reading journal articles, books, or book chapters on the field of psychology; o Conducting your own research on a topic within psychology; and o Media sources What is Science? • Do you know? • Why would it matter? • Do you know it when you see it? • Types of Science • What isn’t science? • Controversial Science • How do know it when you see it? • • The accumulation of knowledge via systematic observation or experimentation using the scientific method: o o Empirical o Control o Self-Correcting • • Empirical o The acquisition of knowledge via objective and systematic collection of data • Self-Correcting o Asystem of challenges by which scientific claims can be verified • Control o The direct manipulation of a desired variable Introductory Research Methods Or o The management or removal of unwanted factors that can influence observations or experiments The Scientific Method • Critical Thinking o o Theories • o Statistical techniques • Reliable Observations o Measurement theory • Rigorous Testing o o Hypothesis testing • o Peer review • Fundamental basis of the scientific method is the idea of empiricism – the idea that knowledge is based on observations. o What we can “see” and observe is real. o There is a “real world” that follows systematic rules and laws. o The real world does not depend on understanding i.e., we do not vote on science (e.g., Semmilweis and hand washing). How Science Works • Accurate Observations: Researches make observations that are accurately communicated to the scientific community and the public. • Search for Discovery: Researchers search for evidence that verify their ideas about the world. Develop theories, argue that existing evidence supports these theories, conduct research to provide evidence that theories are correct. • Open exchange: An open forum exists in for the exchange of ideas. Research is conducted to support or *refute ideas and theories that are advanced. Introductory Research Methods o Falsifiability: All ideas and theories must be falsifiable. Must be possible to disconfirm – ideas or theories which are irrefutable are not considered scientific. • Peer review: Research is not published without peer review. Intended to ensure that major flaws are not replicated and that only the best research is supported. • Replicable: Results can be reproduced using the same methodology and procedures • New knowledge: Science generates new and improved knowledge and theories and encourages growth and development. The Forer Effect You have a great need for other people to like and admire you. You have a tendency to be critical of yourself. You have a great deal of unused capacity which you have not turned to your advantage. While you have some personality weaknesses, you are generally able to compensate for them. Disciplined and self-controlled outside, you tend to be worrisome and insecure inside.At times you have serious doubts as to whether you have made the right decision or done the right thing. You prefer a certain amount of change and variety and become dissatisfied when hemmed in by restrictions and limitations. You pride yourself as an independent thinker and do not accept others' statements without satisfactory proof. You have found it unwise to be too frank in revealing yourself to others. At times you are extroverted, affable, sociable, while at other times you are introverted, wary, reserved. Some of your aspirations tend to be pretty unrealistic. Security is one of your major goals in life. • Forer’s Experiment o Personality test administered to students o Asked to rate results from 0 – 5 o Average rating was 4.26 • The Forer effect o Tendency to rate sets of statements as highly accurate even though the statements could apply to many people • Later studies found that subjects give higher accuracy ratings if the following are true: o the person believes that the analysis applies only to him or her o the person believes in the authority of the evaluator o the analysis lists mainly positive traits What is Pseudoscience? • Any theory, method, or belief that appears based in science but is not. Introductory Research Methods • Pretend science that appears to be scientific, but which does not adhere to the scientific method or lacks supporting evidence or plausibility. Examples of Pseudoscience • • Phrenology • Mesmerism • Crainology • Repressed memory theory Attributes of Pseudoscience • Based on observations and intuition • Based on untestable theories • Anecdotal information and reliance on authority • Tenacity: hearing a piece of information so often that you believe it is true. Pseudoscience • How do we distinguish Pseudoscience from Science? o Uses vague, exaggerated or untestable claims  Nonspecific language (e.g., You’ll feel better! ) o Over-reliance on confirmation rather than refutation  Testimonials, personal experience o Lack of openness to testing by other experts  Failure to provide information for peer review o Absence of progress  No expansion of theory or science (e.g., astrology) o Personalization of issues  Seeing critics as enemies (e.g., autism and immunization). Introductory Research Methods o Use of misleading language  Introduction of scientific sounding words (e.g., “restores cellular balance by helping our cells express themselves”) Goals of Psychological Research • To describe behaviour – what is going on? • To understand or explain behaviour – why is this happening? • To predict behaviour – where will this behaviour or event be exhibited? • To influence behaviour – how can I increase or diminish the exhibited behaviour? • To describe behaviour o Relies on observation or describe ways in which events are related to each other  e.g., Researchers investigated the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake, plasma antioxidant micronutrient status and cognitive performance in healthy subjects aged 45 to 102 years. Their results indicated higher cognitive performance in individuals with high daily intake of fruits and vegetables. • Explanation of behaviour o Why does the behaviour occur? o Even if viewing TV violence is a cause of aggressive behaviour, why does it happen? Is it modelling? Is it desensitization to violence? Does it show that violence is rewarded? Or that it is accepted? • To determine the cause of behaviour o In order to change behaviour, it’s important to know the cause o prediction does not mean we have determined cause  e.g., aptitude test scores do not cause university grades • Evidence needed to determine cause... o Temporal precedence  do aggressive children watch violent television programs or do children who watch violent television programs act aggressively? o Covariation of cause and effect Introductory Research Methods  We need to know that children who television violence behave more aggressively and children who don’t watch television violence do not behave aggressively o Alternative explanations  There should be no other alternative explanations. What if children who watch violent TV are more often unsupervised than children who don’t? • To predict behaviour • If two events are systematically related to each other, it allows us to make predictions o E.g., Psychologists from the University of Toronto have developed a personality inventory that can predict who will excel in academic and creative domains, even when respondents are trying hard to fake their answers. • To influence the behaviour o In what ways can the behaviour be changed in order to solve a problem that exists? o E.g., What interventions can be implemented to decrease bullying in our school system? Goals of Research • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder o o Describe o Predict o Explain o Influence Basic Research • Research that is conducted to further the collective knowledge about a topic within a field of study • Strives to answer fundamental questions about the nature of behaviour. Research that is designed to address theoretical issues in human behaviour. • Goals of Psychological Research o o Describe o Explain o Predict Introductory Research Methods Applied Research • Research conducted to address issues that involve practical problems and potential solutions. o Goals of Psychological Research o Influence Basic andApplied Research • Both important! • Applied research often guided by the findings of basic research o E.g.,Applied research on eyewitness testimony in jury trials is often informed by basic research on perception and cognition o Skinner’s basic research on operant conditioning has informed many effective treatment interventions (behaviour therapy) • For Kids WithADHD, Regular 'Green Time' Is Linked to Milder Symptoms o Astudy of more than 400 children diagnosed withAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has found a link between the children's routine play settings and the severity of their symptoms, researchers report. Those who regularly play in outdoor settings with lots of green (grass and trees, for example) have milderADHD symptoms than those who play indoors or in built outdoor environments, the researchers found. • TV Viewing, Video Game Play Contribute to Kids' Attention Problems, Study Finds o Parents looking to get their kid's attention -- or keeping them focused at home and in the classroom -- should try to limit their television viewing and video game play. That's because a new study led by three Iowa State University psychologists has found that both viewing television and playing video games are associated with increased attention problems in youths. Theories • What is a theory? o An integrated set of principles that predicts and explains observed relationships among variables. o Grounded in actual data, based on observable evidence o An overarching principle that explains separate research findings Introductory Research Methods  E.g., Piaget – stages of cognitive development. • Good theories are... o General – summarize different outcomes o Parsimonious – simplest explanation for the observed outcomes  E.g., Stages Theory accounts for wide variety of behaviour across various domains, yet organizes these into discrete stages with definable characteristics. o Provide foundation for future research  E.g., stage theory has informed other areas of child development (i.e., moral reasoning, gender identity). o Falsifiable Developing Hypotheses • What is a hypothesis? • Aresearch hypothesis can be defined as a specific and falsifiable question or prediction regarding the relationship among two or more variables. o Aquestion or an idea that can be tested.  E.g., What are the differences in alcohol consumption among male and female university students? o Or a formal statement :  E.g., Increased alcohol consumption in first year university affects females more adversely than males. o Based on the hypothesis, researchers make predictions concerning the outcome of the study:  Females who report drinking more alcoholic beverages will have lower GPAs than females who drink less alcohol.  Females who report drinking more alcoholic beverages will have lower GPAs than males who drink similar amounts. • If confirmed by the results of the study, we say the hypothesis has been supported. *Note we never say “proven” • If research does not support the hypothesis, we either reject it or conduct further research using different methodology. Introductory Research Methods Sources of Ideas for Research • Deductive versus Inductive reasoning o Deductive: Using a theory to generate specific ideas that can be tested through research  Top-down approach  From more general to more specific  E.g., Testing theories to form hypothesis o Inductive: Developing ideas about relationships between variables based on observation.  Bottom up approach  We make observations, detect patterns and make hypotheses. • Common sense o “Birds of a feather flock together” or “Opposites attract” or “Catch more flies with honey than vinegar” • Observations o Testing hunches or exploring personal beliefs  E.g., friends who struggle in romantic relationships Sources of Ideas • Using existing research o Expand or improve on existing findings o Consider potential limiting conditions o Explaining conflicting findings • Practical Problems o Lack of resources, lack of funding, decreasing academic scores, etc. WEEK 2 Goals of Psychological Research • To describe behaviour– what is going on? o Relies on observation or describe ways in which events are related to each other Introductory Research Methods  e.g., relationship between fruit & vegetable intake, plasma antioxidant micronutrient status and cognitive performance in healthy subjects aged 45-102. Results indicated higher cog. performance in those with high daily intake of fruits & vegetables. • Explanation of behaviour– why is this happening? o Why does the behaviour occur? o Even if viewing TV violence is a cause of aggressive behaviour, why does it happen? Is it modelling? Is it desensitization to violence? Does it show that violence is rewarded? Or that it is accepted? • To determine the cause of behaviour o In order to change behaviour, it’s important to know the cause o prediction does not mean we have determined cause  e.g., aptitude test scores do not cause university grades • Evidence needed to determine cause... o Temporal precedence  do aggressive children watch violent television programs or do children who watch violent television programs act aggressively? o Covariation of cause and effect  We need to know that children who television violence behave more aggressively and children who don’t watch television violence do not behave aggressively o Alternative explanations  There should be no other alternative explanations. What if children who watch violent TV are more often unsupervised than children who don’t? • To predict behaviour– where will this behaviour or event be exhibited? o If two events are systematically related to each other, it allows us to make predictions  E.g., Psychologists from the University of Toronto have developed a personality inventory that can predict who will excel in academic and creative domains, even when respondents are trying hard to fake their answers. • To influence the behaviour– how can I increase or diminish the exhibited behaviour? Introductory Research Methods o In what ways can the behaviour be changed in order to solve a problem that exists?  E.g., what interventions can be implemented to decrease bullying in our school system? Goals of Research Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder • Describe • Explain • Predict • Influence Basic Research • Research that is conducted to further the collective knowledge about a topic within a field of study • Strives to answer fundamental questions about the nature of behaviour. Research that is designed to address theoretical issues in human behaviour. • Goals of Psychological Research o o Describe o Explain o Predict Applied Research • Research conducted to address issues that involve practical problems and potential solutions. • Goals of Psychological Research o Influence Basic andApplied Research • Both important! • Applied research often guided by the findings of basic research o E.g.,Applied research on eyewitness testimony in jury trials Introductory Research Methods o Skinner’s operant conditioning , effective treatment interventions (behaviour therapy) • For Kids WithADHD, Regular 'Green Time' Is Linked to Milder Symptoms • TV Viewing, Video Game Play Contribute to Kids' Attention Problems, Study Finds o psychologists has found that both viewing television and playing video games are associated with increased attention problems in youths. Theories • What is a theory? o An integrated set of principles that predicts and explains observed relationships among variables. o Grounded in actual data, based on observable evidence o An overarching principle that explains separate research findings  E.g., Piaget – stages of cognitive development. • Good theories are... o General – summarize different outcomes o Parsimonious – simplest explanation for the observed outcomes  E.g., Stages Theory accounts for wide variety of behaviour across various domains, yet organizes these into discrete stages with definable characteristics. o Provide foundation for future research  E.g., stage theory has informed other areas of child development (i.e., moral reasoning, gender identity). o Falsifiable Developing Hypotheses • What is a hypothesis? o Aresearch hypothesis can be defined as a specific and falsifiable question or prediction regarding the relationship among two or more variables. o A question or an idea that can be tested.  E.g., What are the differences in alcohol consumption among male and female university students? Introductory Research Methods o Or a formal statement :  E.g., Increased alcohol consumption in first year university affects females more adversely than males. • What is a hypothesis? o Based on the hypothesis, researchers make predictions concerning the outcome • If confirmed by the results of the study, we say the hypothesis has been supported. • *Note we never say “proven” • research does not support the hypothesis = reject or conduct further research using methodology. Sources of Ideas for Research • Deductive Reasoning: Using a theory to generate specific ideas that can be tested through research o Top-down approach: From more general to more specific  E.g., Testing theories to form hypothesis • Inductive Reasoning: Developing ideas about relationships between variables based on observation. o Bottom up approach: We make observations, detect patterns and make hypotheses. • Common sense • Observations o Testing hunches or exploring personal beliefs  E.g., friends who struggle in romantic relationships • Using existing research o Expand or improve on existing findings  Consider potential limiting conditions & Explaining conflicting findings o Practical Problems  Lack of resources, lack of funding, decreasing academic scores, etc. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Introductory Research Methods Step 1: Problem Identification • Identify a topic of study & conduct an initial review of work already done Step 2: Hypothesis Formation • Development of a hypothesis – Statement about the relationship between variables Step 3: Data Collection • Designing an experiment or development of a study Step 4:Analysis of Data • Using statistical analysis to analyze the collected data Step 5: Conclusion • Draw conclusions about the data collected and analyzed Step 6: Reporting of Findings • Dissemination of finding -This allows others to confirm or disprove your study ETHICS • Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS-2) • University of Guelph Research Ethics Board (REB) • Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) • American Psychological Association (APA) Foundations of Ethics • Nuremberg Code (1948) o 10 principles developed for the Nazi war crimes trials o Applied only to medical research • Declaration of Helsinki (1964) o Most recent revision in 2008 Introductory Research Methods o Regarded as the foundation for human research ethics • Belmont Report (1979) o Ethical principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research o Beneficence*, respect for persons, justice  *forms of action intended for the benefit of another person Three Core Principles Tri-‐Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (2010) TCPS 2, 2d edition • • Respect for Persons • Concern for Welfare • Justice Respect for Persons • Respect for Persons recognizes the intrinsic value of human beings and the respect and consideration that they are due o Includes moral obligations to respect autonomy and to protect those with developing, impaired or diminished autonomy o Includes requirement to seek a person’s free, informed and ongoing consent o Includes a commitment to accountability and transparency in the ethical conduct of research. Concern for Welfare • Aim to protect the welfare of participants, and, in some circumstances, to promote that welfare in view of any foreseeable risks associated with the research • Provide participants with enough information to be able to adequately assess risks and potential benefits associated with their participation in the research • Must attempt to minimize the risks associated with answering any given research question. They should attempt to achieve the most favourable balance of risks and potential benefits Justice Introductory Research Methods • Promoting fairness and equity in research • All persons should have access to and benefit from the contributions of research and no segment of the population is unduly burdened by the harms of research or denied the benefits of the knowledge generated from it. o E.g., Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-1972) • Receive equal quality in the processes, procedures, and services being conducted Important Topics in Ethics Participant CenteredApproach • Understanding participants’perspective • Participants treated as more than objects to study • Power within relationships must be taken into consideration (e.g., teacher – student, employer– employee). Risk • Research is generally classified as “no risk,” “minimal risk,” or “at risk” • The REB makes the final decision about the risk involved in research • Risks can include: o o Physical harm (e.g., medications) o Stress (e.g., psychological stress) o Loss of privacy and confidentiality   Data storage, access to data, destruction of data • No Risk o Anonymous surveys, observations of non-sensitive public behaviours were participants cannot be identified, archival research where participants cannot be identified. • Minimal Risk Introductory Research Methods o Risk of harm to participants is no greater than risks encountered in daily life or in routine physical or psychological tests • Greater than minimal risk or “at risk” o Research involving physical stress, psychological stress, invasion of privacy, measures of sensitive information where participants may
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2360

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit