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Midterm

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2410
Professor
Francesco Leri
Semester
Winter

Description
WEEK 6 1. Primary reinforcer a. Not learned b. Survival – sex, food, water c. Powerful and novel 2. Secondary reinforcer a. Learned; previously neutral b. Repeatedly paired with primary and thus strengthens response 3. Social reinforcer a. Blend of primary and secondary b. Praise, affection, attention 4. Law of Effect (thorndike) – gradual modification of non reflexive behaviour by experience a. Several responses made in a situation that are closely followed by satisfaction b. Satisfaction stamps in connection between stimulus and response 5. Law of Effect (bouton) a. Instrumental learning – maximize benefit, minimize cost b. Behaviour increases or decreases depending on environment Good S* Bad S* Obtain Reward learning Punishment learning (something good (something bad happens) happens) Prevent Omission learning Avoidance learning (prevents good from (prevent something bad happening) from happeneing) 6. Shaping – shaping response a. Starts with classical conditioning (neutral stimulus paired with food) b. Curiosity causes action (pushing lever) c. Conditioned reinforcer (noise) maintains responding 7. Paradoxical Reward Effect (Amsel) a. remove good b. behaviour increases  this should not happen in absence of satisfaction or drive reduction 8. Latent Learning a. Learning can occur in absence of satisfaction b. Only use this learning when satisfaction is presented 9. Contiguity Theory (Guthrie) a. Operant conditioning = stimulus, response, and biologically significant stimulus occurring together b. Stop action principle – muscle movements when S* delivered probably will repeat in future (i.e. superstitious behaviour) 10. Cognitive Theory (tolman) a. primary goal of S* = motivate behavior b. operant conditioning = making S-S* associations c. brain process more complicated than S-R psychologists believe 11.Reinforcement Theory (skinner) a. Reinforcer = diff. from reward (doesn’t discuss how it feels) b. Reinforcing stimulus = event enhances storage of info about situation (gives emotional tone& enhances consolidation) aka strengthens S-R AND gives motivational context c. Consolidation and motivation are parallel processes Behaviour Increases Behaviour Decreases Stimulus Presented Positive reinforcement Punishment (up) (presentation of aversive stimuli) Stimulus Removed/Omit Negative Reinforcement Negative Punishment (removal of aversive (omission) (removal of an stimulus) incentive stimulus) 12.Consolidation is interrupted by: a. Learning new material b. ECT – erase memory c. Trauma – stops activity 13.Passive Avoidance Task (Huston) a. Results= to observe function of reinforcers, need to study when reinforcer isn’t contingent on response (didn’t use food as motivator) 14.BLOCK a. Electrical stimulation of reticular formation helps retention of appetitive and aversive tasks 15.Medial Forebrain Bundle a. Stimulating MFB reinforces behaviour/promotes consolidation b. Maintains self stimulating behaviour (think nicotine as reinforcer/conditioned motivator) 16.Drugs of abuse a. If you take right dosage of drug of abuse, during memory consolidation, you enhance memory (via dopamine from VTG) 17.Wanting but not liking a. Rewarding=reinforcing b. Drug addicts c. Dopamine – doesn’t mean pleasure Week 7 1. Reinforcers Dependent On… a. Drive b. Incentive value of S* (how much you personally want it) c. Delay between C & US d. Stimulus control e. Schedule of reinforcement 2. RG-SG mechanisms (hull) a. Aka reaction in goal box (cr through association with S*); stimulus in goal box b. T shaped box – animal can be trapped in box for extended time and still learn because of cs while in goal box reinforcing delay and anticipatory reinforcers (interoseptive – stomach noise) 3. Proprioceptive (spence) a. Reinforcement is sensation felt b. When proprioceptive (body awareness) and exteroceptive (outside world) cr’s are eliminated, brief delay in presentation of reinforcer prevents learning 4. Stimulus Control a. One stimuli = produces response after conditioning b. Other stimuli=contextual c. Responding can generalize to other stimuli d. Behaviours you want = generalized e. Behaviours you don’t want = discriminant 5. Schedules For Reinforcement Continuous – doesn’t encourage persistent behaviour (extinction causes quick decay of responding) Partial – encourage persistent behaviour; changes behavior permanently (slower decay) partial reinforcement schedule Ratio Interval Schedules Schedules (counting) (time)
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