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Midterm 2 Notes.docx

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PSYC 2410
Boyer Winters

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Neuroscience Midterm #2 Notes CHAPTER 2: - Dichotomous traits: phenotypes that are all-or-none (traits that are one way or another, not in between) – ex. brown and white - True breeding lines: if you have brown and brown making babies, you’ll get brown. Two organisms with a particular trait only produce offspring that have that trait as well. - Gene: each inherited factor - Alleles: two genes that are in one person for a single trait. - Genotype: the actual genetic make-up - Phenotype: the actual PHYSICAL and OBSERVABLE characteristics. - Operator gene: controls one or more structural genes o structural genes are genes that activate mRNA (the production of a protein/peptide) o operator genes are also called enhancers or promoters - Transcription: DNA to RNA. Translation: RNA to protein. - Splicing: introns are removed because they have no significance to protein synthesis - Alternative splicing: exons are re-arranged to make different mRNAs that can code for different proteins - Epigenetics: a change in phenotype that is heritable but does not involve gene mutation - Epigenetics in Parental Care: o Good mom vs. bad mom (high licking vs. low licking) o Turns out that it’s due to low levels of anxiety instead o Even during cross-fostering (one mom has mice, the other nurses) they turn out to be good moms (aka low anxiety) in BOTH situations (i.e. if bad mom had children + good mom nursed, or if good mom had children + bad mom nursed) o Sometimes, there can be spontaneously bad moms. Not all of this is heritable. - DNA Methylation: addition of methyl to cytosine bases (high methylation = reduced transcription) o De-methylation involved in the suppression of stress responses (better moms [aka lower anxiety] resulted from de-methylation) - Histones: group of proteins found in chromatin - Histone modifications: they can be phosphorylated (addition of phosphate) o Or they can be acetylated (addition of acetyl groups to histone tails) o This opens chromatin! And activates transcription o De-acetylation removes histones, therefore would stop transcription. - Adaptive behaviour is maintained; maladaptive behaviour is not - Behavioural phylogeny: species to which the organism belongs + how that has changed them - Behavioural ontogeny: individuals lifespan, their experiences + the stimuli to which they’ve been exposed throughout their lifespan - Maze-bright rats vs. Maze-dull rats o Bred maze-dull rats with other maze-dull rats o Bred maze-bright rats with other maze-bright rats o Kept breeding the dullest of the maze-dull rats and the brightest of the maze-bright rats until they were completely separated o Did cross-fostering: dull mice raised by bright parents, bright mice raised by dull parents & found gene does have effects because the bright children were still bright and the dull rats were still dull. o But this inbreeding didn’t affect just one trait (found out that the brighter ones were smarter because they were less fearful. Therefore, more likely to travel around) o BUT!!!! Learning also has an effect (experience). Those who had an enriched environment, regardless of being bright or dull, performed similar and were smarter than those who had an impoverished environment. - P25 = associated with neurodegenerative disorders; significant difference in spatial memory in rats who were given P25 in a malnourished environment vs. an enriched environment o Even though neurodegeneration, environmental enrichment can still help - Fear conditioning: prevents from doing something bad; rats usually “freeze” in response to something scary - Siamese fighting fish: very aggressive NORMALLY. A fish that wins a couple fights gets an increase in aggression. A fish that loses a couple fights decreases in aggression. Temperaments can change due to environment. - Bird songs: Behavioural development o Male birds sing to attract females. They learn their songs via listening to other males sing. (this if the first stage. Sensory phase). Then, they start to practice their own song and eventually perfect it! (this is the second stage. The sensorimotor phase). They need to be raised around other males or else their voice won’t be the same. o Some birds are age-limited learners: songs stay the same throughout time o Some birds are open-ended learners: their songs can adapt and change throughout time - The Canary Song Circuit: o Males have a bigger voicebox than females o Anterior forebrain pathway is associated with song learning o Descending motor pathway is associated with song production o Seasonal plasticity: their brain part that is associated with the songs gets bigger in the spring - Multiplier effect: when a specific gene encourages an individual to seek out certain environments CHAPTER 4: - Cell membrane has a semi-permeable barrier (hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails) - Different proteins allow for the influx or efflux of ions. Transmembrane/integral proteins and Peripheral membrane proteins. o Transmembrane: goes from one side of the membrane to the other  Signal vs. Channel  Signal proteins: send msgs to the rest of the cell  Channel proteins: allow specific ions to go through o Peripheral: on one side of the cell membrane (allow input only from one side)  Facilitate chemical reactions (usually enzymes) - Active transport: from low to higher concentration with use of proteins or enzymes - Facilitated diffusion: allows things to flow with help from proteins - Substances should be lipid soluble to readily make it through the lipid bilayer - Ions are not lipid soluble so they need the help of proteins - Na+ and Cl- are more concentrated OUTSIDE of the cell o K+ and protein ions (-) are more concentrated INSIDE the cell o THE INSIDE IS MORE NEGATIVE THAN THE OUTSIDE - Membrane potential: difference in charges from the inside of the cell to the outside of the cell o Normal resting potential: -70mV - Cell membrane impermeable to the protein ions (-); not very impermeable to the Na+ ions; relatively permeable to the K+ ions; and very permeable to the Cl- ions - In order to keep these ions WHERE THEY ARE: K+ needs to be at +20mV (is normally at 90), Cl- = 0. And Na+ needs to be at +120mV (is normally at 50). o K+ ions leak out o Na+ flood in o Sodium potassium pump puts 3Na+ in for every 2K+ it sends out. - Depolarization = excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) - Hyperpolarization = inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) - Decremental conduction: lowers in power as it goes along, but then the action potentials come in at each Node of Ranvier and starts up another action potential that keeps it going before it dies - Spatial summation: at the same time in different locations – gives more power! - Temporal summation: at the same location at different times, but in rapid succession – gives more power! - Neuron fires at about -65mV in the axons membran
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