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Things to Remember Neuroscience Final.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2410
Elena Choleris

Timbre: richness in sound (complexity) Missing Fundamental: when you hear sound that sounds one frequency when it is not there (200, 300 and 400 Hz and sounds same as 100 Hz sound) Ultrasounds: sounds above perception Infrasounds: sounds below perception (can sometimes perceive these) Eustachian tube: how we get air in middle ear, used for equalization and why lose some hearing when we have a cold (gets plugged) Hair cells are receptors for hearing, ciliated, floating in fluid or embedded in tectorial membrane (respond to mechanical stimulus, graded, physically connected and when channels open, K+ and Ca+2 rush in Aging: lose high frequencies first – membrane less flexible and smaller to begin with Auditory nerve  cochlear nucleus  superior olives (medial – phase difference, superior – amplitude)  lateral lemniscus  inferior / superior colliculi (deep layers)  medial geniculate nucleus  A1 (2 areas, simple sounds, superior temporal gryus)  A2 (7 areas, complex)  posterior parietal cortex (where) or prefrontal association cortex (what) Vertical electrode – same frequency range Conductive – ossicles damage /malformed / plugged due to cold Nerve – damage to auditory nerve or hair cells, tumour, stroke, blow to head (less likely) Tinnitus – ringing Semicircular canals  ampulla (angular acceleration)  vestibular sacs (linear acceleration, walls of saccule and floor of utricle)  otoconia move  cupola and receptors move  vestibular nucleus  eye muscles or other projections (temporal cortex, pons, cerebellum, spinal cord) Exteroceptive: external stimuli Proprioceptive: position Interoceptive: internal conditions Free Nerve Endings: simplest, pain and temperature changes, close to surface, fast adapting Pacinian Capsules: largest and deepest, onion, responds to sudden skin displacements, fast adapting Merkel Disks: slow adapting; respond to gradual pressure Ruffini Endings: slow adapting; respond to gradual stretches Touch and proprioception: dorsal columns  dorsal column nuclei  decussation, addition of trigeminal nerve information medial lemniscus  ventral posterior nucleus of thalamus  primary and secondary somatosensory cortexes Pain and temperature: decussate right away  (a) spinothalamic tract (b) spinorectiular tract (c) spinotectal tract  ventral posterior nucleus  primary and secondary cortexes projections Primary Cortex – postcentral gryus, somatotopic, 4 strips (horizontal electrode – same body area, different sensations, different receptive fields, vertical electrode – different body area, same sensation, same receptive field) Astereognosia: inability to recognize objects by touch Asomatognosia: inability to recognize one’s own body (contralateral neglect) Anosognosia: inability to recognize one’s symptoms Pain localization: primary somatosensory cortex Affective pain: insula, cingulate gyrus, secondary somatosensory cortex Opioids inhibit inhibitory interneurons on PAG  simulates neurons projecting to raphe nucleus  stimulates projections to GABA interneurons in spinal cord which when excited, inhibit incoming pain Olfactory receptors in mucosa, ciliated, not 1 cell per receptor type, functional convergence at glomeruli cells Olfactory tract  pyriform cortex  (a) thalamus (medial dorsal nucleus)  orbital frontal cortex or (b) limbic structures Receptors pump in fluids from nasal cavity  V1R (apical) to anterior AOB, V2R (non apical) to posterior AOB  limbic structures (functional convergence at mitral cells)
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