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Regulation of Gene Expression.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2410
Elena Choleris

- Code for proteins Structural Genes - DNA opens, it is transcribed into mRNA, mRNA leaves the nucleus and attaches to ribosome, mRNA is translated into its amino acid sequence and a protein is made - Control one or more structural genes Operator Genes - Also known as enhancers - Determine how and at what rate a cell will develop Active Nongene DNA - Portions of DNA that are not involved in synthesis of proteins are involved in control of structural genes - Introns (do not code for protein) Slicing and Alternative - Exons (code for protein) Splicing - We cut out introns and put back together exons to synthesize proteins - We can also put the exons together in various ways so 1 gene can produce multiple proteins Micro and other - Small sections of RNA that bind to mRNAs and affect translation into proteins Regulatory RNAs - Can be inhibitory and activate - Approx. 60% of genes can be regulated by miRNAs Monoallelic Expression - When one of 2 alleles is inactive and the other allele is expressed often due to epigenetic mechanisms - Bind to DNA and affect transcription Transcription Factors - Must have place to bind to DNA and DNA must have place to bind to transcription factor - E.g. polymerase, estrogen, vitamin D - Often work with co-regulators which regulate the transcription factors DNA Methylation: - Addition of methyl group to cytosine bases - Essentially silences gene by not allowing the DNA to
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