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Things to Remember.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2410
Elena Choleris

Things to Remember for Behavioural Neuroscience Midterm 1 2012 Coolidge Effect in females: female copulates with 1 male until male tired, all females receive new male while males from phase 1 rest, all females receive third male (half are same from phase 1 and half are new)  new energy Quasi-experimental: when experimental method is too physical and unethical, find people exposed to conditions in their own life Physiological psychology: study of neural mechanisms of behavior by manipulating the NS, animals, basic Psychopharmacology: effects of drugs on the brain, animals, applied and basic Neuropsychology: effects of brain damage, basic and applied, patient care and counseling, human (case studies) Psychophysiology: relationship between physiology and psychological responses, human, non invasive, basic and applied Cognitive Neuroscience: patterns between brain activity and task, human, non invasive Comparative psychology / ethology: study of animal in ecological and evolutionary complex reality Jimmie G: the man who mistook his wife for a hat - Could not form new memories, was an alcoholic - Current diagnosis: Korsakoff’s syndrome o Not caused by alcohol rather from vitamin Bi deficiency o Not getting the calories from nourishment, rather from the alcohol - Effects of alcohol on brain damage are indirect (interferes with metabolism) - Can speed up effects of neurodegeneration and brain damage Jose Delgado: caudate stimulation causing bull to turn, aggression control center? No. rather a center for motor control - Occam’s Razor (law of parsimony): should select from group of hypotheses, the one that makes the fewest assumptions Proximal in PNS is close to CNS Distal in PNS is far from CNS Spinal Cord has 5 regions. i) Cervical (7 vertebrae) ii) Thoracic (12 vertebrae) iii) Lumbar (5 vertebrae, where spinal cord nerves end) iv) Sacral (5 vertebrae) v) Coccygeal (3-4 vertebrae) Somatic NS: afferent nerves (from environment to organ), efferent nerves (motor output to muscles) Autonomic NS: afferent nerves (from organ to brain), efferent nerves (from brain to organ) Parasympathetic NS: nerves from brain and sacral regions, go close to target organ, relax Things to Remember for Behavioural Neuroscience Midterm 1 2012 Sympathetic NS: nerves from thoracic and lumbar regions, go far from target organ, arousal, only innervation of adrenal gland I. Olfactory - smell II. Optic - vision III. Occulomotor – eyelid movements IV. Trochlear – rolling eyes V. Trigeminal a. Opthalmic (eyes, forehead, headaches), b. Maxillary (nose, teeth sensations, tooth aches) c. Mandibular (jaw muscles) VI. Abducens – lateral rectus eye muscles VII. Facial – facial expressions, salvation, tears and tongue sensations VIII. Audiovestibular – hearing and balance IX. Glossopharyngeal – speech and tongue sensations X. Vagus – sensations of viscera XI. Spinal Accessory – sensations and neck and shoulder movements XII. Hypoglossal - tongue sensations Grey Matter: cell bodies and un-myelinated axons White Matter: myelinated axons Dorsal root: sensory unipolar neurons, cell bodies are grouped just outside spinal cord at dorsal ganglia, synapses at dorsal horns Ventral root: motor multipolar neuron, cell bodies in ventral horn There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves. The foramen is the hole formed by the vertebrae for the spinal cord. Meninges are membranes wrapped around the CNS. Excess CSF absorbed by dural sinuses and drain into jugular veins of neck. Multipolar: multiple protrusions from cell body Interneuron: no axon, only dendrites Nuclei: cluster of cell bodies in CNS Ganglia: cluster of cell bodies in PNS Tracts: cluster of axons in CNS Nerves: cluster of axons PNS Satellite Cells (PNS): support Schwann Cells (PNS): myelination Oligodendrocytes (CNS): myelination Astrocytes (CNS): support, nourishment, send and receive signals from other neurons Microglia: phagocytes of nervous system Golgi: not all stain black Nissl: only cell bodies, not specific to neurons Myelin: only myelinated axons, cannot see individual cells Things to Remember for Behavioural Neuroscience Midterm 1 2012 Electron Microscopy: great detail, 2D (internal structures) and 3D Neuroanatomical Tracing: anterograde (cell body to innervated organ) vs. retrograde (opposite) Myelencephalon: blows to the neck Metencephalon: pons (3 cranial nerve) and cerebellum (coordination and balance) Mesencephalon: tectum (superior  visual and inferior  auditory colliculi) and tegmentum (pain center [periaqueductal grey], coordination [substantia nigra, red nucleus]) Diencephalon: thalamus (sensory relay center, ventral posterior [somatosensory], medial geniculate [auditory], lateral geniculate [visual]) and hypothalamus (motivated behaviours  the 4 F’s, neurosecretory functions) Telencephalon: cerebral cortex, basal ganglia system (voluntary movements and reward), limbic system (sensory interpretation and emotions [regulation of 4 F’s]) Precentral gyrus: main motor area Postcentral gyrus: main somatosensory area Superior temporal gyrus: main auditory area Pyramidal cells: output cells, multipolar neu
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