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Things to Remember for Behavioural Neuroscience Midterm II.docx

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PSYC 2410
Elena Choleris

Things to Remember for Behavioural Neuroscience Midterm II: Polar Head – glycerol and phosphate head Non-polar Head – fatty acid tails Glycolipids – modified phospholipids, protective, receptor binding, recognition of self Transmembrane Signal Proteins – used for communication Electrostatic Pressure and Force of Diffusion: Na 120 mV into cell (E and D both inside), K 20 mV+ outside cell (D outside, E inside), Cl 0mV (D inside, E outside) + + Sodium Potassium Pump – 3Na and 2K , keeps concentrations the same EPSP – positively excite, due to opening of Na channels IPSP – negatively excite, due to opening of K channels PSPs – decremental, rapid, do not travel far before dying out, graded response, passive Spatial Summation – 3 possibilities, same time, different locations, add energies Temporal Summation – 2 possibilities, same location, rapid succession Action Potential – all or none response, non-decremental, active, longer lasting, slower Absolute Refractory – cannot be stimulated Relative Refractory – can be stimulated but with a bigger strength, allows us to see different light intensities etc., action potentials leave trace of refractory periods Firing of neurons  temporal summation Number of neurons  spatial summation Rate of firing is correlated with stimulus intensity Salutatory Conduction – “to jump”, signal dampens to EPSP, can’t all be myelinated because signal would not reach the next node of Ranvier Cerebral Neurons – fire continuously even with no input, axons and dendrites can conduce action potentials, action potentials can vary in amp., duration and frequency, many do not have axons or ap. Axodendritic synapses – most common, one way Electrical Synapses – limited to excitatory, membrane coupling, direct transmission Gap Junctions – free movement, bilateral, passive Bigger Neuropeptides – synthesized and packaged in soma, active axonal transport to terminal, smaller neurotransmitters are not packaged until in the terminals Ionotropic – ligand-activated channel, fast response Metabotropic – associated with signal proteins (G proteins), slower, longer lasting, varied responses Autoreceptors – bind to own neurotransmitter molecule, self regulation via inhibitory feedback Presynaptic Inhibition – inhibition only, slightly depolarize cell, smaller difference at synapse, less Ca 2+ influx into cell 2+ 2+ Glutamate – NMDA (Mg blocker), AMPA, Kainate (Na channels) and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor, glutamate re-uptake vs. glutamate shuttle, NR1 is needed for LTP and learning (memory and spatial tasks), NR2B also needed (good at context and cue learning, and object recognition), PCP glutamate antagonist GABA – inhibitory, benzodiazepines (anxiety, commonly prescribed, muscle relaxing), barbiturates (anesthesia, calming, impair memory and learning), steroids (mood and anxiety), picrotoxin (inhibits GABA )A alcohol (regulates GABA ) A Dopamine – substantia nigra  striatum, ventral tegmental area  limbic system, cortex, L-DOPA for Parkinson’s disease, amphetamines (agonist), Antischizophrenics (D2 antagonists) Norepinephrine/Epinephrine – locus Cereleus, medulla of adrenal glands, flight or fight, same receptors (metabotropic), Atomoxetine (agonist, ADHD), monoamine oxidase inhibitor (antagonist, depression), beta-blockers (antagonist, anxiety), cocaine (agonist) Serotonin – aggressive behaviours, regulation of emotions, learning, fluoxetine (agonist, Prozac), Fenfluramine (agonist, appetite), locaserin (agonist, satiety enhancer) ACh – neuromuscular junctions, basal forebrain, pons, Botox (nicotinic antagonist), black widow spider (agonist), atropine (muscarinic antagonist), curare (nicotinic antagonist) Soluble Gas – short lasting, highly active, NO and CO (regulate pain, blood pressure, learning) Opioid – pain relief, morphine (agonist),
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