Module 3- Data
What are the research methods commonly used?
• The observation variables X and Y.
Describes events learned from study
• Q. Is there an association between the variable X and variable Y?
See 2 events that happen at the same time
Ex) how does low self esteem cause depression?
• Q. Is the variable X having a causal effect on the variable Y?
What are descriptive methods?
• Case Study: observing and gathering information to compile an in-depth study of
• Overgeneralization from one example
Ex) Phineas Gage was studied after separating 2 cortexes
• Naturalistic observation: recording behaviour in the environment without
control or manipulation
Observes small groups in natural environment Module 5: Parts of the Brain
What are common strategies to investigate the brain and what it does?
• Lesion based approaches
• Accidents (e.g., Phineas Gage)
• Surgeries (e.g., disected copus callosum)
• chemically numbing, magnetically deactivating, or electrically stimulating parts of
• Imagery: CAT, MRI, fMRI, and PET scans • Electroencephalogram
emotions such as fear and aggression
basic drives such as hunger and sex
the formation of episodic memories
• processing conscious, episodic memories
helps remember events in our life that is happy/sad
• working with the amygdala to form emotionally charged memories
• Consists of two lima bean- sized neural clusters
• Is involved in the experience of different emotions