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Final Exam Study Notes

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PSYC 2410
Dan Meegan

Psychology: Final Exam Notes CHAPTER 6 Freud 1. Conscious – contains thoughts, perception, other mental events of awareness 2. Preconscious – outside current awareness, can be recalled under certain circumstances 3. Unconscious – can’t be brought into conscious awareness under ordinary circumstances  Some things are kept out of consciousness because it would arouse guilt, anxiety, other negative feelings  Cognitive psychologists reject idea of unconscious mind driven by instinctive urges and repressed conflicts  View conscious and unconscious mental life as complementary forms of information processing - `not an adversary to the unconscious mind. Instead, the cognitive unconscious functions as a sophisticated support service, working in harmony with our conscious thoughts’ Circadian Rhythms  Daily biological cycles  Most regulated by brain’s suprachiasmic nuclei (SCN) in the hypothalamus  Linked to the pineal gland – melatonin  Eyes connect to SCN – light enters and activates Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)  Cyclic tendency to become psychologically depressed during certain months of the year, usually fall/winter Phototherapy – exposure to bright light; effective for SAD Stages of Sleep 1. Form of light sleep from which you are easily awakened from  May only spend a few minutes in  Some people experience images and sudden body jerks 2. As sleep becomes deeper, sleep spindles (1-2 second bursts of rapid brain-wave activity) begin to appear  Muscles more relaxed, breathing and heart rate are slower, harder to awaken 3. Marked by the regular appearance of very slow (0.5-2 cycles per second) and large delta waves 4. Hen delta waves occur more often and when delta waves dominate the EEG pattern  Often referred to as the slow-wave sleep (together wth stage 3)  Body is relaxed,activity in various parts of your brain has decreased, hard to awaken  20-30 minutes, EEG pattern changes as you go back through 3 and 2  After 60-90 minutes of sleep, you will have completed a cycle of stages 1-2-3-4- 3-2 REM sleep  Every half a minute or so, bursts of muscular activity caused the sleepers’ eyeballs to vigorously move back and forth beneath their closed eyelids  Rapid Eye Movements  Dreaming only occurs in this stage  A person who ‘never dreams’ can recall dreaming if awakened from this stage  Physiological arousal may increase to daytime levels  HR quickens, more rapid & irregular breathing, brain-wave activity resembles the ‘awake state’  Dreaming is not as vivid in non-REM sleep  REM sleep paralysis – more difficult for voluntarily muscles to contract; as a result, they are more relaxed, ‘paralyzed’; body is highly aroused, but little-no muscle movement Why Do We Sleep?  Restoration Model – sleep recharges our run-down bodies and allows us to recover from physical and mental fatigue  We need to sleep to function at our emotional, mental and physical best  Evolutionary/circadian sleep models – emphasize that sleep’s main purpose is to increase a species’ chances of survival in relation to its environmental demands  Leaving shelter at night was more dangerous than daytime circadian pattern developed as adaptation to environment  REM sleep – may strengthen neural circuits which may help memory The Nature of Dreams  Mental activity occurs during the sleep cycle  Hypnogogic state – transitional state from wakefulness through early stage 2 sleep  15-40% of people awakened after 6 minutes of sleep reported dreamlike activity  Dream more during REM sleep than non-REM sleep and within the final hours of sleep  80% of dream reports involved negative emotions, almost half contained aggressive acts, and a third involved some type of misfortune  Freud’s psychoanalytical theory – main purpose of dreaming is wish fulfillment, the gratification of our unconscious desires and needs o Include sexual and aggressive urges that are too acceptable to be consciously acknowledged and fulfilled in real life o Manifest content – the “surface” story that the dreamer reports o Latent content – its disguise psychological meaning  Activation-synthesis theory – during REM sleep, the brain stem bombards our higher brain centres with random neural activity (the activation component); cortex attempts to interpret activity by creating a beat fit to the pattern of activation (synthesis) o Dreaming does not serve any particular function – merely a bi-product of REM neural activity o Accounts for the bizarreness of dreams: brain is trying to make sense out of random neural activity  Cognitive Approaches o Problem-solving dream models – dreams can help us find creative solutions to our problems and conflicts because they are not constrained by reality o Cognitive-process dream theories – focus on the process of how we dream  Dreaming and waking thought are produced by same brain systems  Dreaming requires imagery skills and other cognitive abilities that young children have not yet developed  Children’s mental abilities develop with age, so does their ability to dream  Half REM reports involve rapid content shifts o Toward integration – model that incorporates findings on sleep physiology with the cognitive principle of modular consciousness Drugs and the Brain  Drug enters bloodstream and carried throughout the brain by small blood vessels, called capillaries  Capillaries contain a blood-brain barrier which screens out any foreign substances, but some (variety of drugs) manage to pass through and alter consciousness by facilitating or inhibiting synaptic transmission  Agonist drug – increase activity of a neurotransmitter o May enhance the production, storage or release of a neurotransmitter; activate the postsynaptic receptor; or prevent the neurotransmitter from being deactivated o Examples:  opiates (morphine, codeine, oxycodone) – activate endorphin receptors;  amphetamines (powerful stimulants) – amplifies the actions of the neurotransmitter dopamine and norepinephrine; block the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine  Antagonist drug – drug that inhibits or decrease the actions of a neurotransmitter o Opposite of agonist, do not affect neuron Tolerance and Withdrawal  Tolerance – when a drug is used repeatedly, the intensity of the effects produced by the same dosage decreases o May use larger dose to acquire same effects o Results from homeostasis o Brain produces compensatory reactions to oppose effects of drug  Withdrawal – when a person stops taking the drug and the compensatory responses are no longer balanced out o Person may experience strong reactions opposite to those of the drug effects Theories of Hypnosis  Dissociation Theories: Hypnosis as Divided Consciousness – view hypnosis as an altered state involving a division (‘dissociation’) of consciousness o Creates division of awareness in which the person simultaneously experiences two streams of consciousness that are cut off from each other o One stream responds to the hypnotist`s suggestions; Second stream is the part of consciousness that monitors behaviour and remains in the background but is aware of everything that goes on (`hidden observer’  Social Cognitive Theories: Roles and Expectations – propose that hypnotic experiences result for expectations of people who are motivated to take on the role of being “hypnotized” o People motivated to conform to the role of a hypnotized person develop a readiness to respond to the suggestions and to perceive the hypnosis as real and involuntary CHAPTER 7 Habituation – decrease in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus (occurs within CNS) Basic Principles  Acquisition – period during which a response is being learned o Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) – no learning is require for stimulus to produce salivation o Unconditioned Response (UCR) – no learning required for the response o Conditioned Stimulus (CS) –the stimulus after association o Conditioned Response (CR) – the associated response o Fastest: forward trace pairing (CS appears before UCS) o Slower: simultaneous pairing (CS appears with UCS) o Slowest: backward pairing (CS appears after UCS)  Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery o Extinction – when the CS is presented repeatedly in the absence of the UCS, the CR weakens and eventually disappears o Spontaneous Recovery – reappearance of a previously extinguishes CR after a rest period, without new learning trials  Generalization a
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