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BNS midterm 2.docx

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PSYC 2410
Boyer Winters

BNS midterm 2 10/9/2012 1:42:00 PM CHAPTER TWO- Evolution evolution why? o Ex. Why do all humans show the same kind of facial expression to communicate their different emotions? Comparitive method precursors Mechanisms how? o Ex. How does smiling develop, what behavioural stimuli induce it, what parts of the brain are involved in production/recognition? Imitation Face recognition neurons Mirror neurons the basis of imitation Zeitgeist: general intellectual climate of our culture which ingrains in our minds. The biology of behaviour: dichotomies to interactions Physiological or psychological: o Cartesian dualism: the human mind and brain are separate entities A category of human activity that somehow transcends the brain. o PROBLEMS: Assumption that some functioning is so complex it could not be a product of the physical brain. Ex. the man who fell out of bed Asomoatognosia deficiency in the awareness of parts of one's own body, usually from right parietal lobe damage. all human experience, even very complex ones, can be produced by manipulation of the brain. Some nonhuman species (primates) have abilities that were assumed to once be purely psychological/human. Ex. self-awareness of chimps Even non humans (no mind) are capable of psychological complexity (self awareness) Nature or nurture (learned/inherited) o Ethology: The study of animal behaviour in the wild o Instinctive behaviours: Behaviours that occur in all like species Emphasized the role of nature, not just nurture. o Progression of debate: 1 ) factors other than genetics/learning proved to influence behaviour (broadened concept of nurture- included experience.) 2 ) behvaiour is result of nature & nurture combined. o PROBLEMS: How-much-is-genetic-how-much-is-from-experience: Assumes they combine in additive fashion- not interaction. Model of the biology of behaviour: o all behaviour is the product of interaction of 3 factors: 1) genetics (product of evolution) 2) experience 3) perception of current situation Human evolution Darwin: o Evolve undergo gradual orderly change o 3 kinds of evidence: 1) evolution of fossil records through more recent geog. layers. 2) Striking structural similarities between living species yet differences too.. (evolving from common ancestors). 3) The major changes brought about in plants and animals through of selective breeding. (artificial selection?) o Natural selection heritable traits associated with high rates of survival and reproduction are the most likely ones to be passed on. Fitness the ability of an organism to survive and contribute its genes to the next generation. o scientific theory an explanation that provides the best current account of some phenomenon based on the available evidence evolution observed in progress: o ex. peppered moth before industrial revolution white form after black form o ex. darwins finches summer of sever drought, only big seeds were left, average beak size increased. Evolution over time: Early view: o Greek philosopher Anaxiamander (611-547 B.C.) o Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) o Roman philosopher Lucretius (99-55 B.C.) o Scientist, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) o Physicist, Galileo Galilei (1564-642) o Geologist, James Hutton (1726-1797) o Geologist, Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Evolution in 1700s: o Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon: Historie Naturelle Species Change The environment acts on organisms through "organic particles" o Erasmus Darwin (Grandfather of Charles Darwin) : Zoonomia, or The Laws of Organic Life Species Change Position similar to Lamarks Also: competition and sexual selection Evolution in the 1800s o Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck Philosophie zoologique 1stcomprehensive theory of evolution use and disuse leads to change movement toward perfection changes in form through conscious will environmental effects on organ development inheritance of acquired characteristics ex. evolution of giraffes long neck (lamarcks view) o Charles Robert Darwin provided biology with its great unifying principle: The Theory of Natural Selection fossils in Patagonia diversity of life in the Galapagos islands giant tortoises finches Alfred Russel Wallace wrote Letter to Darwin in 1858 with similar set of ideas. 3 observations & 2 deductions Obs 1 Organisms have large capacity to overproduce. Obs 2 Populations remain remarkably stable. (with a few exceptions) Ded 1 There is a struggle for survival. Obs 3 Individuals differ in characteristics many of these differences are heritable. Ded 2 individuals with adaptive characteristics will reproduce more successfully and will pass on these characteristics to their offspring. o (natural selection Evolutionthe accumulation of the changes in the population due to natural selection ex. evoution of giraffes neck (darwins view) o Neo-Darwinism in 1900s darwins theory + heredity + Genetics Fisher, Haldane, Wright Fitnessthe ability of an organism to survive and to contribute its genes to the next generation Direct fitness Inclusive fitness Key Points on Evolution divergent evolution o homologous structures (same) similar structures as result of same origin. (e.g. arm and bird wing) convergent evolution the evolution in analogous species to the same environmental demands o analogous structures (similar) similar structures which dont have same origin (e.g. bird and insect wings) o does not progress to preordained perfection o very slow or with sudden changes o Spandrelsevolutionary byproducts without a use. e.g. belly button
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