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Developmental Psychology (Psych 2450)- Distance Ed Exam Notes

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PSYC 2450
Jennifer Mc Taggart

Psych 2450 DE Exam Notes Chapter 1 Studying a Childs World The Study of Child Development Basic Concepts 7 Child Development Scientific study of processes of change and stability from conceptionthrough adolescence Quantitative change change in number or amount such as in height weight or size ofvocabularycontinuous Qualitative change change in kind structure or organization such as the change fromnonverbal to verbal communicationdiscontinuous Domains of Development 3 Domainso Physical development Growth of body and brain including patterns of change in sensorycapabilities motor skills and health o Cognitive development Pattern of change in mental abilities such as learning attention memorylanguage thinking reasoning and creativityclosely related to physical and emotional growth o Psychosocial development Pattern of change in emotions personality and social relationshipsPeriods of Development The concept of periods of development is an arbitrary one adopted for purposes of socialdiscourse which makes it asocial constructionoConcept about the nature of reality based on societally shared perceptions orassumptions Typical Major Developments in Five Periods of Child Development Physical Cognitive Psychosocial basic body structure and able to learnremember Prenatal Periodorgans conception to most rapid growth birth brain grows in problem solving Attachments to Infancy and complexity comprehensionuse of parents present Toddlerhood growth and development language dependence to birth to age 3 of motor skills are rapid autonomyinterest in other kids growth steady egocentric thinking independence Early Childhood strength and motor skills memorylang improve Gender identity 3 to 6 years improve altruism aggression preschool starts Growth slows egocentrism diminishes selfconcept Middle strength and athletic logical thinking complexes Childhood skills memlang increasepeerscentral 6 to 11 years importance Growth rapid abstract thinking and search for identity Adolescence reproductive maturity scientific reasoning ie sexual 11 to 20 yearsInfluences on Development 9 Normal childrens development is important as well as individual differencesoDifferences among children in characteristics influences or developmentaloutcomes Hereditary Environment and Maturation Influences includeo Hereditary inborn influences or traits inherited from biological parentsoEnvironmenttotality of nonhereditary or experiential influences on development iesocialization Which of these factors has more weight on development ieNature vs Nurture Opinions vary Both are important because it takes inheritance and experience tocreate intelligence for example o Maturation unfolding of a natural sequence of physical and behavioural changesincluding readiness to master new abilities ex walkingtalking Contexts of Development Contexts for children usually begin with a family and families are subjected to a widerinfluences like neighbourhoods community and society Contexts are outside influences that can affect the development of a childoFamily are more common in urban societiesNuclear familyis a twogenerational kinship economic and household unitconsisting of 2 parents and their naturaladopted childrenare more common in societies such as those of Asia andExtended familyLatin Americatraditional family form Multigenerational kinship of grandparents aunts uncles etco and NeighbourhoodSocioeconomic Statuscombination of economic and social factors describing an individual orfamily including income education and occupation SES affects developmental processes outcomes and otherrisk factors conditions that increase the likelihood of a negative developmental outcomeLiving in more affluent and cohesive neighborhoods associated with higher levels of school readiness and school performanceChildren in more affluent families also may be at riskUnder pressure to achieve and often left on their own by busy parents these children have high rates of substance abuse anxiety and depression Children from low SES families that move to high SES neighborhoods show fewer behavioral and family problems and less delinquency than those whose families stay in low SES neighborhoods Children between ages 16 and 18 years who experience such neighborhood transition are more likely to show increased behavioral and family problems Most powerful factors seems to be an average neighborhood income and human capital the presence of educated employed adults who can build the communitys economic base and provide models of what a child can hope to achieve o and EthnicityCultureCulture A societysgroups total way of life including customstraditions beliefs values language and physical productsall learned behaviour passed on from parents to children consists of people united by ancestry race religionEthnic group language and or national origins which contributes to a sense of shared identity and shared attitudes and beliefs and valuesImmigrant or minority groups acculturate to adapt or to the majority culture by learning the languageand customs needed to get along in the dominant culture while trying to preserve some of their own cultural practices and valuesacculturation is not the same as assimilationThe term race is now considered to be a social construct Race makes a difference in how individuals are treated where they live their employment opportunities the quality of their health care and whether they can fully participate in their society Categories of race culture and ethnicity are fluid Normative and NonNormative influencesNormative ocharacteristic of an event that occurs in a similar way for most people in a groupoNormative agegraded influence highly similar in a particular AGE group Example biological events ie puberty social events ie formaleducation entry Biological events are fixed within a normal range versus social events which are more flexible oNormative historygraded influences particularex living in Canadacohortsduring the Great Depression
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