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PSYC 2450
Jeffery Jutai

Chapter 13: Development of the self and social cognition  Self: the combination of physical and psychological attributes that is unique to each individual  Social cognition: thinking that people display about the thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviors of themselves and other people  Development of the self-concept  Proprioceptive feedback: sensory information from the muscles, tendons, and joints that helps us locate the position of our body (or body parts) in space - Most developmentalist believe that infants come to distinguish themselves from the external environment over the first 2 to 6 months of life  Self-differentiation in infancy  Personal agency: recognition that one can be the cause of an event (2 month old limited sense of personal agency or responsible for at least 1 event)  Self-recognition in infancy  Self concept: one’s perceptions of one’s unique attributes or traits  Self-recognition: the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror or photograph o Rouge test: apply spot of rouge on nose and put them in front of mirror; if they recognize the image of themselves in the mirror, they will notice red spot and will wipe their nose - At 9-24 months; no self-recognition, 15-17 months; showed some sign of recognition and 18-24 months majority wipe their nose (show self-recognition) o Cognitive development may be necessary for self-recognition, parents who contribute to a child’s self-concept by providing descriptive info is helpful to the child o Securely attached: (toddlers also classify themselves along socially significant dimensions such as age and gender forming a categorical self) o Parenting style influences toddlers achievement of self-recognition (see table 13.1)  Present self: early self-representation in which 2 and 3 years olds recognize current representations of self but are unaware that past self-representations or self-relevant events have implications for the present  Extended self: more mature self-representation, emerging between ages 3 ½ and 5 years, in which children are able to integrate past, current and unknown future self- representations into a notion of a self that endures over time  Categorical self: a person’s classification of the self along socially significant dimensions such as age and sex - Toddlers who have reached the self-referential milestone will soon become more outgoing and social - Once they display self-recognition they can reach categorical self  Who Am I responses of preschool children? - Self-descriptions of 3-5 years old very concrete; focus on physical features, possessions and activities they can perform; psychological self-awareness 1  Concepts of self in middle childhood and adolescence  False-self behavior: acting in ways that do not reflect one’s true self, or the “true me” - By about age 8 or middle childhood, children begin to describe themselves in terms of their inner and enduring psychological attributes - Adolescence have more integrated and abstract self0concept that includes not only their dispositional qualities but also knowledge of how these characteristic might interact with situational influences to affect their behavior  Individualistic society: society that values personalism and individual accomplishments, which often take precedence over group goals. These societies tend to emphasize ways in which individuals differ from each other  Collectivist (or communal) society: society that values cooperative interdependence, social harmony, and adherence to group norms. These societies generally hold that the group’s well-being is more important than that of the individual  Who am I to be? Forging an identity  Identity: a mature self-definition; a sense of who you are, where you are going in life and how you fit into society (1) Identity diffusion: identity status characterizing individuals who are not questioning who they are and have not yet committed themselves to an identity (2) Identity foreclosure: identity status characterizing individuals who have prematurely committed themselves to occupations or ideologies without really thinking about these commitments (3) Identity moratorium: identity status characterizing individuals who are currently experiencing an identity crisis and are actively exploring occupational and ideological positions in which to invest themselves (4) Identity achievement: identity status characterizing individuals who have carefully considered identity issues and have made firm commitments to an occupation or ideologies  Developmental trends in identity formation - Erikson believed that identity formation is lifelong process, adolescence is when identity is most important (no clear identity= depressed and lack self-confidence) - Identity formation takes place: uneven process that often continues well into adulthood  Influences on identity formation (1) Cognitive influences: think logically about hypotheticals= better to imagine future identities (2) Parenting influences: relationship of adolescence with parents. o In diffusion statues= feels neglected and be distant o Identity foreclosure= close and fear rejection from controlling parents. o Moratorium + identity achievement= solid base of affection at home and freedom 2 (3) Scholastic influences: going to university push people in setting a goal but not good for establishing political or religious identities (4) Sociocultural influences: identity influenced by broader social and historical context. Choosing personal identity peculiar to industrialized societies  Self-esteem: The evaluative component of self  Self esteem: one’s evolution of one’s worth as a person, based on an assessment of the qualities that make up the self-concept  Origins and development of self-esteem - By age 4 and 5 children have already established an early and meaningful sense of self-esteem one that is influenced by their attachment history - Self esteem beings as infant form positive or negative working models of self from their interactions with caregivers - Children’s evaluation of themselves and their competencies is most important part of self that can influence all aspect of their conduct and psychological well-being  Components of self-esteem  Relational self-worth: feeling of self-esteem within a particular relationship context (with parents, with male classmates); may differ across relationship contexts - Self-esteem depends on how we evaluates ourselves - Girls self esteem depends on relationship with friends (high esteem) and the lack of friends (low esteem) and boy associated with successfully influencing their friends (high esteem) and lack of romantic competence from affection of girls (low esteem)  Changing in self-esteem - Erickson argued that young adolescents who experience many physical cognitive and social changes associated with puberty often become confused and show at least some erosion of self-esteem as they leave childhood behind and begin to search for stable adult identity - The study showed that self-esteem declined at ages 9-20 years old, followed by a recovery and gradual increase in self-worth from young adulthood to about 65 years old, when self-esteem beings to decline again among the elderly  Social contributors to self-esteem  Parenting styles - Warm, responsive, democratic parenting fosters self-esteem; aloof or controlling parenting styles seems to undermine it  Peer influences - As early as age 4 or 5, children begin to recognize differences among themselves and their classmates - Social comparison: the process of defining and evaluating the self by comparing oneself to other people 3 - Young adolescents who receive ample and balanced social support from both parents and peers tend to display high levels of self-esteem and a few problem behaviors  Culture, ethnicity and self-esteem - Children and adolescents from collectivist societies tend to report lower levels of global self-esteem than individualists countries because of individual accomplishments and self-promotion - Western societies often compete as they pursue individual objectives and take pride in their individual accomplishments - Collectivist are more interdependent the independent and value humility and self- effacement  Develo
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