PSYC 2450 Study Guide - Final Guide: Longitudinal Study, Confounding, Random Assignment

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Longitudinal vs. cross-sectional research designs; how to minimize effects of confounding variables. Longitudinal: same participants are observed over a course of time. Cross sectional: people who differ in age are studied at the same point in time. Limitations: cohort effects: not true developmental change/ data on individual development tells us nothing about the individual. How to minimize the effects of confounding variables: Confounding variables are other variables that are not the independent of the dependent variables. Experimental control: steps taken to minimize the effects of confounding variables. Experimental method: the only cause and effect design . Determines whether two or more variables of interest are meaningfully related. Correlational coefficient: numerical index ranging from -1. 0 -> +1. 0. Absolut value tells us the strength of the relationship. The direction of the slope indicates a positive or negative correlation. Sequential design: combines the best features of cross sectional and longitudinal studies. Sequential is most efficient but the most costly and timely.

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