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Midterm #1 Study Guide

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2450
Erin Allard

Chapter One What is Development y Systematic continuities and changes between conception and death What drives developmenty Two processes underlying developmental change 1 Maturationaging process nature side 2 Learningchange due to experience nurture sidey Most developmental changes are due to both y Human development is o Holisticwhat happens in one area effects other areas o Plasticindividuals have the capacity to change based on experiences o Continual and cumulativeChronology of Development 1 Prenatal periodconception to birth 2 Infancyfirst year of life 3 Toddler period18 months to 3 years 4 Preschool period3 to 55 Middle childhood5 to 12 or until puberty 6 Adolescence12 to 20 7 Young adulthood20 to 40 8 Middle age40 to 65 9 Old age65 y For someone who achieves puberty earlier before the 12 of middle childhood can be considered to be in adolescence even though their age is not in that groupJeffery Arnett y Focuses on emerging adulthoodlate teens to mid20s y This age used to start families and get careers now marriage and jobs come later and people stay in school longerWhy study childhood and adolescence y Period of rapid development and change y Experiences of early years affect later development y Insight into complex adult processes y Real world applications Goals of developmentalistsy Describe development o Normative developmentdevelopment that follows normal change o Ideographic developmentvariation in development y Explain development o Why do individuals develop differently y Optimize development o Apply findings to real world want to make positive changesDiscussion What are some current assumptions about children y No respect for their elders y Children are judgemental y Dont have good attention spans y Do not understand what is going on around them y Grow up too fast Where do these assumptions come from y Personal experiences y Media y Expert opinionHistorical Perspectives on Childhood y Contemporary western societies are child centred y In the early days of recorded history o Children had few if any rights o Their lives were not always valued Ex Children being used as a sacrifice ththy 17 and 18 century philosophers held modern day views o Thomas Hobbeschildrens inherent nature is negative childs role in development are passive o Jean Jacques Rousseauchildrens inherent nature is positive childs role in development are active o John Lockechildrens inherent nature is neutral childs role in development are passiveHistory of Adolescence thy Recognition as a distinct phase in early 20 century o Largely due to the spread of industry in western societies y Many cultures do not consider it a distinct phase Childrens Rights in Canaday Evolved along with the concept of childhood o The changes reflect historical changes y Currently children are viewed as entities in their own rightEthical Considerations y All children who participate in research have the right to o Protection from harm o Informed consent need parents ok but if child says no the child does not have to even with parents permission o Confidentiality o In the case of concealment or deception the right to be debriefed Stanford Prison Experimenty Participants did not know when experiment would begin y Police cars came at random and arrested the volunteer who received 15 bucks per day y Blindfolded them and brought them to the basement of the Stanford building which modeled a prison y People were randomly assigned to guard or prisoner role y Prisoners had to stay while guards could work 8 hour shifts and leave y Guards became abusive and prisoners became stressed
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