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PSYC 2450 CH Notes (Pre midterm 1).docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2450
Erin Allard

PSYC 2450CH 1 Developmentsystematic continuities and changes in the individual that occur between conception and deathSystematic changesorderly patterned and relatively enduringo Excludes changes in appearances thoughts and behavioursContinuitiesways in which we remain the same or continue to reflect our pastDevelopmental psychologybranch devoted to identifying and explaining the continuities and changes that individuals display over timeDevelopmentalistany scholar who seeks to understand the developmental processMaturationbiological unfolding of the individual according to speciestypical biological inheritance and an individuals biological inheritanceo ie humans capable of walking and uttering first words at about 1 yrs old reach sexual maturity between 1115 o responsible for psychological changes ie increasing ability to concentrate solve problems and understand another persons thoughts or feelingsLearningprocess through which our experiences produce relatively permanent changes in our feelings thoughts and behaviours o from observations of and interactions with parents teachers and other important peopleo from experienceo changes in response to our environments to actions and reactions developmental sciences describe how explain why and optimize development futureNormative developmenttypical patterns of change Ideographic developmentindividual variations in patterns of change first 12 yrs are an extremely important part of the life span that sets the stage for adolescence and adulthood determines who we are as adolescents and adults human developmentcontinual and cumulative process only constantchangest periods of life prenatalconceptionbirth infancy1 yr toddler18 mnths3 yrs preschool35 yrs middle childhood512 yrs puberty changes in one aspect of developmentimportant implications for other aspects age at which child reaches puberty important in physical development effect on social life children who do well in school more popularHolistic perspectiveinterrelationships among physical mental social and emotional aspects of human development Plasticitycapacity for change in response to positive or negative life experiencescultural socialization has strong influence on attributes and competencies individuals displaydevelopment influenced by societal changes historical events technological breakthroughs social causescontemporary Western societieschildcentredo children excused from shouldering full responsibilities of adulthood until attaining legal age of 1421 depending on society early days children had few if any rights not always valued by elders viewed as possessionso medieval times a bit better children depicted as adults tho 1718 centuries young people began going to school abuse discouragedImmigrantsyoung people became economic liabilities rather than assetsth Late 19 centurychild labour restricted schooling compulsorymandatory adolescence Increased life spanpostponed marriages and careers to pursue postgradOriginal sinHobbes doctrine that holds that children are inherently selfish egoists who must be restrained by society o Parents must actively control their egoistic children o children must learn to rechannel their naturally selfish interests into socially acceptable outlets Innate purityRousseau doctrine that maintains that children are born with an intuitive sense of right and wrong that society often corruptso Parents should give their children freedom to follow their inherently positive inclinations o Children actively involved in shaping their own intellects and personalitiesTabula rasaLocke believed that the mind of an infant is a blank slate and that children have no inborn tendencies o Children neither inherently good nor bad how they turn out depends entirely on their worldly experiences Disciplined child rearing would ensure more good habits and less bad o childs role is passive mind of infant is blank slate on which experience writes its lessons Baby biographiesdetailed record of infants growth and development over a period of timeo Darwin young untrained infants share many characteristics with their nonhuman ancestors o Different aspects of behaviour difficult to compare not entirely objective based on single childconclusions may not hold true Canadian public policy regarding rights of childrenstruggle to cope with evolving concept childhood and changes in responsibilities of parents and societyo Howe 3 changes 1 children moved from being viewed as family property to dependents in need of state protection2 recognition of children as semiindependent individuals with rights of their own3 society moving toward recognition of children as entities in their own right should be afforded economic security given to othersst Hall1 large scale scientific investigation of childrenfounder of developmental psychology as research discipline o Developed the questionnaire Hall childrens understanding of the world grows rapidly during childhood o logic of young children is not very logical at all Freud psychoanalytic theory Theoryset of concepts and propositions that describe and explain some aspect of experienceo Help describe and explain various patterns of behaviour in psychologyo Help predict future eventsHypothesestheoretical predictions tested by collecting datao Info about theorys ability to explain new observations may lead to new theoretical insightsNo room for subjective bias when evaluating a theoryScientific methoduse of objective and replicable methods to gather data for purpose of testing a theory or hypothesis guides attempts at understandingo Investigators must be objective and allow their data to decide the merits of their thinking Reliabilityextent to which a measure yields consistent results over time and across observers Interrater reliabilityextent to which measure produces comparable estimates from independent observersTemporal stabilityextent to which measure yield similar scores from 1 test to another shortly after Validityextent to which a measure accurately measures what the researchers intended to measureInstrument must be reliable before valid reliabilityvalidity
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