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Lab Summary for Final Exam

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

Lab Summary for Final Exam Lab 7: Mental Rotation • Procedure: ◦ Given two images of 3D shapes in different positions ◦ Must mentally rotate the image and determine if the images are of the same figure or of mirroring figures ▪ Can the second figure be rotated to look identical to the first figure? ▪ This task is referred to as mental rotation ▪ Mental Rotation:Aprocess that participants seem to use in comparing one image of the form to another. To make the comparison, participants seem to imagine one form rotating into alignment with the other, so that the forms can be compared ◦ Participants are given feedback after each trial, telling whether the answer given was correct or incorrect ◦ Participants told to make judgements as quickly and accurately as possible ◦ Rotations made along one plane of axis only in the ZAPS lab (eg. Were not rotated left to right and up and down) • Predictions: ◦ Response time will increase as the angle of rotation increases ▪ Amount of time to complete a rotation will be a function of the angular difference between the two figures ▪ Predict that mental image will actually undergo a three dimensional rotation in space in the individual's mind that takes more time as more rotation is required • Results: ◦ Response time was highest at 90 seconds ◦ Participants are generally very accurate ▪ Accuracy levels are frequently close to 95% ◦ Response time increased as angle of rotation increased ▪ The further apart images were rotated from each other, the longer they took to be mentally aligned ◦ Males faster at rotating objects in mental space than females on average ▪ Class data ◦ In general, participants find the two dimensional task much easier than the three dimensional task ▪ Fewer mistakes made on two dimensional task ▪ Lower overall average reaction time during two dimensional task ▪ This difference may be because 3D images are not rotated all at once • Eye movements recorded of participants performing the task in a 3D scenario • Eye movements in 3D scenario showed participants looked back and forth between components of both images to see if they lined up as they were being mentally rotated • Further support comes from studies showing response times are higher when participants are told judgements can be made only by rotating a single portion of the image without attention to the remaining portions of the figure ◦ Shepard's linear function was a hallmark for cognitive psychology ◦ Supports that images in mental space undergo spatial transformation or rotation in three dimensional space ◦ Mean participant rotation speed is 60 degrees per second for 3D images ◦ Kosslyn Hypothesis ▪ Experiencing mental images is related to experiencing external visual stimulia Lab 8: Wason Selection Task • Procedure: ◦ The Wason selection task, or Wason's four-card sort is a paradigm for studying how people reason “if-then” logic statements ▪ Selection Task/Four-Card Sort:An Experimental procedure, commonly used to study reasoning , in which a person is presented with four cards with certain information on either side of the card. Ther person is also given a rule that may describe the cards, and the person's task is to decide which cards must be turned over to find out if the rule describes the cards or not. ◦ 4 cards with letters on one side and numbers on the other side ◦ Judge the validity of the following rule: ▪ If a card has a vowel on one side, then it has an even number on the other side ◦ turning over only those cards that are necessary ◦ Goal of the exercise is to turn over as few cards as necessary ◦ We have a vowel, a consanent, an even number and an odd number ◦ If A(vowel), then B (even number) ◦ Normally, when you're given this task, you're not actually shown the other side of the cards, your task is simply to select which cards you would like to turn over. In the task it would actually not matter whether the rule was disconfirmed or not. ▪ Furthermore, there will never be a time that one flipped card will confirm the rule and the other flipped card will disconfirm the rule ▪ On the exam you will most likely be asked to choose which cards to flip, but can't see the other side • Predictions: ◦ Only turn over 2 cards: the vowel card and the odd number card ◦ Modus ponens: If vowel, then even ▪ If A(Vowel), then B (Even number) ▪ Therefor we check vowel to attempt to make a conclusion about the rule ▪ Therefore: the rule has been violated in this example ◦ Modus tollens: ▪ If not B (Even number) then notA(Vowel) ▪ Therefor we check the odd number to attempt to make a conclusion about the rule ▪ Therefore: the rule has been violated in this example ◦ Why do we not need to flip the consanant or even numbers? ▪ The rule doesn't say anything about consanants, only about vowels ▪ If you found an even number, you would not disproven the rule ▪ We do not have to flip over the even number because no matter what you find, you haven't violated the rule ◦ Sample Puzzle: ◦ Predict individuals should logically determine that E and 5 need to be turned over • Results: ◦ People generally make two types of mistakes: ▪ Search for examples that confirm the rule instead of disconfirm the rule • In the above example, choosing 4 would seek to confirm the rule instead of disconfirm it • By turning over 4, we learn
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