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Cognitive Psychology Final Review

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

Cognitive Psychology Final ReviewLanguageIs language a uniquely human ability What are the relative roles of nature and nurture in language development What is the relationship between language and thoughtPsycholinguistics study language behaviour everyday use of language does not always correspond to linguistic theoryEmpiricismnurture our language abilities are learned not innateMental our language abilities are nothing but stimulusresponse associationsThoughtlanguage how did behaviourism explain the subjective experience of thoughtEvidence for subvocal speech includes recordings of subvocal speech activity while subjects are engaged in thoughtEvidence against subvocal speech includes people still being about to think when completely paralyzed memory for meaning rather than exactly what was said and nonhuman animals seem to thinkLinguistic determinism is the way language determines how a person thinks or perceives the worldInuitsnow example rich terminology causes change in perceptionEvidence against linguistic determinism is shown through people seeming to think the same way about things despite linguistic differences English has many colour words but dani does not but there are no differences in colour perceptionLanguage arose as a tool whose function was to communicate thought and language has been shaped to fit the thoughts it must communicateThinking ability appeared earlier evolutionary than language non linguistic animals thinking ability occurs sooner developmentally than language prelinguistic childrenIn languages with many colour words words correspond to colours to which visual system ix maximallysensitiveModularity means language functions independently from other cognitive functions even if it arose to communicate thoughtLanguage acquisition means language is acquired according to unique learning principlesEvidence for uniqueness of language involves no direct instruction required for language acquisition language is acquired even under impoverished learning conditions and the critical period for language learningLanguage universals limit the possible characteristics of natural languages children possess innate knowledge of universals there are examples of uniformities among the worlds languagesParsing is when words are transformed into a mental representation of their combined meaninggrammar is a set of rules that can generate all the acceptable utterances of a language and reject all the unacceptable sentences in the language syntax and semantics
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