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PSYC 2650 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Visual Cortex, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Positron Emission Tomography

Course Code
PSYC 2650
Anneke Olthof
Study Guide

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Cognitive Midterm 1 Chapters 1-4
Chapter 1
Study of knowledge not what we know but how we think, because how we think is
influenced by what we know
Thoughts/actions/feelings depend on knowledge
-shown in H.M amnesia no sense of self
Wundt and student Titchener experimental psych in 1800s
-separate from bio and philosophy
-focus: conscious mental events
-process through which one “looks within” to observe/record contents of one’s own
mental life
-but mental activity is unconscious and not available to introspection
-claims found through introspection are subjective and not testable
The desire to be more scientific lead to changes in psychology in the 20th century
-focus switched to stimuli/behaviors that could be objectively studied, introspection is
-behavior changes in response to stimuli i.e. rewards and punishment
-psychology shifted to “empirical sense”
-but behavior cannot be understood only in terms of stimuli and responses
-behavior also depends on perception, understanding, strategy
-behaviorism can’t handle that interpretation gets the results i.e. “passing the salt”
Experimental Psychologists learned: introspection methods for studying mental events
are not scientific but are necessary in order to understand behavior
Cognitive Psychologists study mental events indirectly
Working Memory
storage of information currently being worked on and is an example of how research
in cognitive psychology works
Span test:
use performance on this text to make inferences about underlying working memory
system (mental events)
-confusion between letters that sound alike, not look alike, this means working memory
makes use of mechanisms during speaking/hearing
Central Executive
coordinates activities in other “assistants”, one “assistant” is the …

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Articulatory Rehearsal Loop 2 elements:
1. Sub vocalization: silently pronouncing words
2. Phonological buffer: auditory image of words
Concurrent Articulation (speaking while remembering):
-reduces memory span dramatically, this suggests that the model needs to incorporate
speech mechanisms, like subvocalizing
Cognitive Neuroscience evidence for working memory:
-Anarthia: inability to produce over speech, muscle movement not needed to vocalize
-same region used for subvocalizing is used during speech and comprehension
Working Memory Mechanisms are important in reading/reasoning/problem
solving more than just the Span task
Rehearsal Loop plays an important role in development as we learn new vocab,
subvocalizing is not natural in kids and we must remind them to do it so that they
become better/faster readers
Chapter 2
Principles of the Brain
Capgras Syndrome
-different parts of the brain perform different jobs
-lack of emotional response lead him to believe his parents weren’t really his parents
-separate path from Amygdala to Visual Cortex which is connected to the Limbic
System (emotions)
Phineas Gage tamping iron through frontal lobes no sense of appropriate
Localization of Function:
-studying brain regions by looking at people with brain lesions
Hindbrain sits directly atop spinal cord
-controls heart and breathing rhythms
-regulates level of alertness
-includes cerebellum which coordinates movements/balance
-also plays role in sensory/cognitive roles
Midbrain sits about hindbrain
-eye movement
-auditory pathways
-regulates experience of pain
Forebrain most parts of brain visible from outer surface biggest
-cortex is the thin sheet of tissue that is folded, called “grey matter” and is 80% of brain
-subcortical structures

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-divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres by longitudinal fissure
- thick bundles of nerve fibers that connect the 2 hemispheres, largest one is corpus
Central Fissure
-divides cortex into anterior and posterior regions (ear to ear)
Cerebral Hemispheres have 4 lobes:
1. Frontal (impulse control and planning)
2. Parietal (special processing and configuration of features)
3. Temporal (auditory)
4. Occipital (visual)
Subcortical parts of forebrain:
1. Thalamus (senses, expect smell)
2. Hypothalamus (motivated behaviors like eating or sex)
3. Limbic System which include Amydala (emotions) and Hippocampus (new info but no
storage of memory)
Neuroimaging high quality three dimensional images
-Computerized axial tomography (CT) shows brain structure like how big something is
or where it is located
-Positron emission tomography (PET) measures blood flow in brain
-Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows structure and takes pictures
-Functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) shows where blood is flowing when
doing different tasks
fMRI example:
-when viewing images of faces, fusiform face area (FFA) is active
-when viewing images of houses, Para hippocampal place area (PPA) is active
(brighter the color the more active because that means there is more blood in that area_
Binocular Rivalry Tong
-activation level in these two regions reflects what the person is conscious of, not just
what the person sees
-and regions indicted by fMRI’s are correlated but not the cause
-Transracial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) can actually be used to see whether an area of
the brain is necessary for the task
Primary Projection areas
-arrival and departure points for info entering (sensory areas) and leaving (motor areas)
of the cortex
-rest of cortex is called the Association Cortex i.e. see cat, her meow, link together
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