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Midterm 1 notes

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PSYC 2650
Anneke Olthof

Cognitive Midterm 1 – Chapters 1-4 Chapter 1 Study of knowledge – not what we know but how we think, because how we think is influenced by what we know Thoughts/actions/feelings depend on knowledge -shown in H.M  amnesia – no sense of self Wundt and student Titchener  experimental psych in 1800s -separate from bio and philosophy -focus: conscious mental events Introspection: -process through which one “looks within” to observe/record contents of one’s own mental life -but mental activity is unconscious and not available to introspection -claims found through introspection are subjective and not testable th The desire to be more scientific lead to changes in psychology in the 20 century -focus switched to stimuli/behaviors that could be objectively studied, introspection is avoided Behaviorism: -behavior changes in response to stimuli i.e. rewards and punishment -psychology shifted to “empirical sense” -but behavior cannot be understood only in terms of stimuli and responses -behavior also depends on perception, understanding, strategy -behaviorism can’t handle that interpretation gets the results i.e. “passing the salt” Experimental Psychologists learned: introspection methods for studying mental events are not scientific but are necessary in order to understand behavior Cognitive Psychologists study mental events indirectly Working Memory – storage of information currently being worked on and is an example of how research in cognitive psychology works Span test: use performance on this text to make inferences about underlying working memory system (mental events) -confusion between letters that sound alike, not look alike, this means working memory makes use of mechanisms during speaking/hearing Central Executive – coordinates activities in other “assistants”, one “assistant” is the … Articulatory Rehearsal Loop – 2 elements: 1. Sub vocalization: silently pronouncing words 2. Phonological buffer: auditory image of words Concurrent Articulation (speaking while remembering): -reduces memory span dramatically, this suggests that the model needs to incorporate speech mechanisms, like subvocalizing Cognitive Neuroscience evidence for working memory: -Anarthia: inability to produce over speech, muscle movement not needed to vocalize -same region used for subvocalizing is used during speech and comprehension Working Memory Mechanisms are important in reading/reasoning/problem solving  more than just the Span task Rehearsal Loop – plays an important role in development as we learn new vocab, subvocalizing is not natural in kids and we must remind them to do it so that they become better/faster readers Chapter 2 Principles of the Brain Capgras Syndrome -different parts of the brain perform different jobs -lack of emotional response lead him to believe his parents weren’t really his parents -separate path from Amygdala to Visual Cortex which is connected to the Limbic System (emotions) Phineas Gage  tamping iron through frontal lobes – no sense of appropriate Localization of Function: -studying brain regions by looking at people with brain lesions Hindbrain  sits directly atop spinal cord -controls heart and breathing rhythms -regulates level of alertness -includes cerebellum which coordinates movements/balance -also plays role in sensory/cognitive roles Midbrain  sits about hindbrain -eye movement -auditory pathways -regulates experience of pain Forebrain  most parts of brain visible from outer surface – biggest -cortex is the thin sheet of tissue that is folded, called “grey matter” and is 80% of brain mass -subcortical structures Cortex -divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres by longitudinal fissure Commissures - thick bundles of nerve fibers that connect the 2 hemispheres, largest one is corpus callosum Central Fissure -divides cortex into anterior and posterior regions (ear to ear) Cerebral Hemispheres have 4 lobes: 1. Frontal (impulse control and planning) 2. Parietal (special processing and configuration of features) 3. Temporal (auditory) 4. Occipital (visual) Subcortical parts of forebrain: 1. Thalamus (senses, expect smell) 2. Hypothalamus (motivated behaviors like eating or sex) 3. Limbic System which include Amydala (emotions) and Hippocampus (new info but no storage of memory) Neuroimaging – high quality three dimensional images -Computerized axial tomography (CT) shows brain structure like how big something is or where it is located -Positron emission tomography (PET) measures blood flow in brain -Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows structure and takes pictures -Functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) shows where blood is flowing when doing different tasks fMRI example: -when viewing images of faces, fusiform face area (FFA) is active -when viewing images of houses, Para hippocampal place area (PPA) is active (brighter the color the more active because that means there is more blood in that area_ Binocular Rivalry – Tong -activation level in these two regions reflects what the person is conscious of, not just what the person sees -and regions indicted by fMRI’s are correlated but not the cause -Transracial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) can actually be used to see whether an area of the brain is necessary for the task Primary Projection areas -arrival and departure points for info entering (sensory areas) and leaving (motor areas) of the cortex -rest of cortex is called the Association Cortex i.e. see cat, her meow, link together Primary Motor Projection area  located in the posterior frontal lobes -more cortical space is devoted to regions of the body we move with the greatest precision i.e. more space for mouth than legs Primary Somatosensory Projection area  located in the anterior parietal lobes Primary Auditory Projection area  located in the superior temporal lobes Primary Visual Projection area  located in the occipital lobes Cortical maps represent sensory motor info in an orderly manner -organization is buy region of body, space, or auditory frequency Cortical space is assigned disproportionately -greater sensory acuity or motor precision is associated with larger cortical representation i.e. our frequency of speech has more space Cortical organization is contralateral – left side of the body or perceptual world had more representation on the right side of the brain Neurological Syndromes reflecting damage to regions of Association Cortex: Apraxia – initiation/organization of movement Agnosia – identifying familiar objects Aphasia – language Neglect Syndrome – half of visual world is ignored Prefrontal Damage – planning/implementing strategies/inhibiting behaviors (Phineas Gage) The Visual System Vision – modality through which much of our knowledge is acquired, illustrates how close study of the brain can proceed Structure of eye projects a sharp image onto the Retina, light sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye – visual processing and analysis begin here Photoreceptors in Retina (cells that respond to light): Rods - higher sensitivity, lower acuity, color-blind, found in periphery of retina Cones - lower sensitivity, higher acuity, color-sensitivity, found in the Fovea (middle of eye) Series of Neurons communicate information from Retina to Cortex: In the Eye: Photoreceptors, Bipolar Cells, Ganglion Cells and the Optic Nerve In the Thalamus: Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) In the Cortex: V1 – primary visual cortex, located in the occipital lobe Patterns of Lateral Inhibition between neighboring cells of the retina lead to Edge Enhancement i.e. lighter to darker on a picture Basic Patterns of a Neuron: -Dendrites – detect incoming signals -The Cell body contains the Nucleus -Axon transmits signals to other neurons -communication between neurons is done through chemical signals (Neurotransmitters) -the space between the two is called a synapse -first neuron is called the presynaptic neuron, second neuron is called the postsynaptic neuron -neurotransmitters affect the postsynaptic neuron by changing ion distributions and resulting electrical potentials -if the postsynaptic cell reaches threshold, an action potential is fired and propagates down the axon, releasing neurotransmitter that affects the next neuron Single-Cell Recording -neurons firing rate or frequency of action potentials is recorded as various kinds of visual stimuli are presented -using these methods researchers map out the Receptive Field: kinds of stimuli to which the neuron best responds – for various cells of the visual system Receptive Fields of the Bipolar cells, Ganglion cells, and cells in the Lateral Geniculate nucleus have a center-surrounded organization (light is only presented to a certain region) -Receptive Fields of the Primary Visual Cortex (V1) are lines of particular orientations which are sometimes called edge detectors (cells are very specific about what will make them “fire”) -because of their different receptive fields, neurons in V1 are each specialized for a particular kind of analysis -Parallel Processing – a system in which many different steps or kinds of analysis occur at the same time -Serial Processing – steps are carried out one at a time Another example of Parallel Processing is found in Ganglion cells, Optic Nerve, LGN -Parvocellular cells have smaller receptive fields and tend to continue firing as long as the stimulus is presented “p cells” -Magnocellular cells have larger receptive fields and respond more strongly to changes in stimulation Parallel Processing is also done by higher visual pathways -from area V1, info is sent to many secondary cortical visual areas for further parallel processing -secondary visual areas lead to 2 major processing systems  what/where system What system: -concerned with identification of objects -involves an occipital-temporal pathway -damage to this system can result in visual agnosia Where system: -concerned with determining locations of objects/guiding our actions in response -involves occipital=parietal pathway -damage to this system can result in problems with reaching for seen objects Binding Problem: -with the great extent of parallel processing, different aspects of a single object are analyzed in different parts o
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