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Midterm

PSYC 2650 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Eleanor Rosch


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2650
Professor
Dan Meegan
Study Guide
Midterm

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Cognitive-Textbook
Chapter 5: The Acquisition of Memories and the
Working-Memory System pg. 148-166 10/09/2011
- Entering Long-Term Storage: The Role of the Intent to Learn
Two Types of Rehearsal
Maintenance Rehearsal
Simple focus on the to-be-remembered items themselves
Little thought about what the items mean or how they are related to each other.
Recycling items in working memory simply by repeating them over and over
Provides no long-term benefits usually.
Dialing a number you hold onto it via maintenance rehearsal.
Relational/Elaborative Rehearsal
Involves thinking about what the to-be remembered items mean
How they are related to each other and to things we already know.
Vastly superior to maintenance rehearsal.
Need long term storage to be able to remember a telephone number.
Rehearsal promotes memory only if it is the right type of rehearsal.
If you encounter items over and over and each time barely think about it will not produce long-term memory.
People’s memory for the penny is bad
The Need for Active Encoding
Supported by many lines of evidence including studies of brain activity during learning process.
fMRI kept track of learning in people studying list of words.
Could remember some of the words but not all.

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Greater levels of brain activity were reliably associated with greater probabilities of retention later on.
Learning is not a passive process-activity is needed to lodge information into long-term memory
Higher levels of this activity lead to better memory
Incidental Learning, Intentional Learning, and Depth of Processing
Student knows memory for course material will be tested later.
Student will take various steps to help herself remember.
How does intention to memorize influence how well we learn?
Participants in study are told we are studying how quick they can make judgments about letters.
Shown series of word pairs
Decide whether two words were typed in same case or different-shallow processing- because participants are engaging the information in
relatively superficial fashion.
They are asked to write down what they could remember (incidental learning)
Second group are told that we want them to make judgments about whether words in reach pair are in the same case or different- but they are
also told that their memories will be tested as the other group was not. (intentional learning)
Produces poor retention
Third group told we are studying how quickly people can make judgments about rhymes
Have to decide whether the two word pairs rhyme or not- this is called medium processing because memory test was unexpected (incidental
learning)
Fourth group given same rhyme task but told that they will have to remember the words as well (intentional learning)
Produces moderate retention
Fifth and sixth groups are led to do deep processing- to think about the meanings of the items.
Press one button if words are synonyms or not. (intentional or incidental)
Produces excellent retention
Results:

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When time comes for recall participants from bottom left cell (deep-processing with no intention to learn) perform quite well whereas
participants from top left cell (shallow processing with no intention to learn) do rather poor.
No difference between left and right columns
Intention to learn seems to add nothing
The Intention to Learn
Deeper the processing the better the memory.
Another group is told that they are about to be shown words on computer screen and asked to memorize them.
Some people think about meaning to memorize, others listen to sound of word over and over
Results from just memorize participants will vary depending on how participant’s self instruct themselves.
Intention does matter, someone who intends to learn will select best strategy they think which affects quality of memory
Intention is indirect- it is the approach not the intention that matters for memory.
- The Role of Meaning and Memory Connections
Differences at stake are quite large
Benefits of deep processing may not lie in the learning process itself.
Deep processing may influence subsequent events
Attention to meaning may promote recall by virtue of allowing retrieval of the memory later on.
(Ex. New book in library must be catalogued and shelved appropriately, cataloguing doesn’t influence arrival of book)
Cataloguing happens at time of arrival
Task of learning is not merely a matter of placing information into long-term memory.
One of the main chores of memory acquisition is to lay the groundwork for memory retrieval.
Several ways to search through memory but a great deal depends on memory connections
Connections allow one memory to trigger another
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