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Cognitive Final Review.docx

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PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

1 Cognitive- Textbook Chapter 10: Language pg. 313-337 Words -Average American high school graduate knows about 45,000 different words. -College student 75,000-100,000 -Speaker needs to know word’s sound, sequence of phenomene’s that make up the word. -Also knows word’s orthography- sequence of letters making up printed version of word. -Must know how to use word within various phrases governed by rules of syntax -Speaker needs to know the meaning of a word; must have semantic representation for word to go with phonological representation, connecting meaning to sound. Word Meaning -Words used to name objects and things around us. -Word’s Referent is what the word is referring to. -Know referent of bird, know what bird means. -Key differences between words referent and its meaning -Some things have no referent because they refer to things that do not exist. -Reference can be temporary or matter of coincidence. -Ex. President of United States changes but meaning of phrase stays the same. -Can also understand words meaning if one understand relevant concepts. Building New Words: -Size of someone’s vocabulary is quite fluid. -New words being created all the time -Imagine hearing “hack” for the first time, “hacker”, “hacking”, “hacked.” -Added morphemes allow you to use words in new ways. -Need to highly the generativity of language capacity to create endless series of new combinations all built from the same set of fundamental units. -Someone who knows English knows how to create new forms within the language; how to combine morphemes to create new words knows how to adjust phonemes when they’re put together into combinations. - Syntax Levels of phrases and sentences -if you have 400,000 words in vocabulary how many sentences could you build? -Sentences range in length from very brief to long. -Speakers need to follow the rules of syntax rules governing sequence of words in phrase or sentence. -These rules provide crucial function for us because they specify the relationships among words in sentence which allows us to talk about how one topic is related to another. -Tells us who is doing what when we hear “They boy chased the girl” -We need principles of syntax that are separate from considerations of semantics or sensibility Phrase Structure -Syntax needs to be understood in terms of series of relatively abstract rules governing sentence’s structure. -Rules specify elements that must be included in sentence and what the sequence of these elements must be. -Rules also specify overall organization of sentence. -“The boy…Loves his dog” is an organization of the sentence in terms of phrase- structure rules. -A sentence (S) always consists of a noun phrase (NP) plus a verb phrase (VP) 2 Linguistic Rules, Linguistic Competence -Taught not to say ain’t -Need to be clear about what sort of rules there are and what the rules are not. -Prohibitions are the result of prescriptive rules rules describing how language is supposed to be. -Used to mark differences between social classes. -Should be count split infinitives as improper usage? -If we do we are honoring the English spoken in 1926 -In this chapter we are concerned with descriptive rules rules characterizing the language as it is ordinarily used by fluent speakers and listeners. -Patterns describe how English is structured or what English is. -The absence of a word or phrase in ordinary usage is difficult to interpret. -Spontaneous speech is filled with performance errors such as “They were I mean weren’t fine” -Most cases you know how to repair the error to make correct sentence. -Original performance doesn’t reflect your full linguistic knowledge. -Sometimes we need to examine language competence rather than performance pattern of skills and knowledge that might be revealed under optimal circumstances. -Can reveal this competence through linguistic judgments; asked to reflect on one structure or another and asked whether that structure is acceptable or not. The Function of Phrase Structure -Many linguistic judgments reveal importance of phrase-structure rules. -People reliably reject some sequences of words as ungrammatical and the phrase structure rule tells us why; unacceptable sentences are ones that don’t follow rules- groupings can also be explained in terms of phrase structure. -Phrase structure rules also matter for linguistic performance and seem to guide what we interpret from sentences we encounter. -SNP (doer) VP (information about doer) divides sentence into the doer and information about that doer. -VP (verb phrase)  V (verb-action) NP (recipient of action) -Phrase structure of sentence provides road map. D-Structure -Phrase structure untangles who did what to whom. -Complication is with the variety of sentences we encounter. -ActorActionRecipient -Sometimes we shift sequence of words for stylistic reasons or to convey a certain emphasis. -Variations from sentence to sentence all marked as a part of sentences D-structure deep structures. -D-structure reflects speakers intentions in saying a sentence- whether it is a question, comment, where the emphasis is. Linguistic Universals -Argued that combinations at each level seem to be rule-governed. -Rules determine which units can be combined and in what order. -Rules also specify a structure within larger units. -Linguistic Universals Principles applicable to every human language. -Subject of a sequence tends to precede object in roughly 80% of world’s languages. -Preferred subject-object-verb language likely to form questions by adding some words at the end. -Preferred subject-verb-object the language will place its question words at the beginning of the question. -Perhaps language learning occurs so fast because child begins process with enormous head start; biological heritage 3 -Child needs to learn what their culture expects language wise and what the rules are; they can then set the switches and begin learning properly. Sentence Parsing -A sentences phrase structure conveys crucial information about who did what to whom -How do you parse a sentence (how do you figure out each word’s syntactic role?) -Wait until sentence’s end and only then go to work on figuring out sentence’s structure. -Comprehension might be slowed because you’re waiting for termination of sentence. -Would avoid errors because interpretation guided fully by full information about sentence’s content. -Instead people begin identification process as soon as they hear first word’s phoneme. -Suggested that it is the same pattern for sentences people hear. -People try and figure out role of each word in the moment they hear them. -More efficient but can lead to errors. Garden Paths -Simple sentences can be ambiguous depending on how we interpret them. -Temporary ambiguity is common inside sentences early part of a sentence is often open to different interpretations but later part of sentence clears things up. “The old man the ships” -Referred to as garden path sentences Initially you are led to one interpretation but it turns out to be wrong; need to reject first construal and seek an alternative -They highlight the fact that there’s some risk attached to strategy of interpreting sentence as it arrives. Syntax as a Guide to Parsing -What leads us down the garden path? -People use a bundle of different strategies. -Tend to assume that they will be hearing active sentences rather than passive so they generally interpret sentence’s initial noun phrase as the doer of the action and not the recipient. -Most sentences we see are active. -Active easier to understand than passive. -What are the other factors guiding parsing? -Not surprising that parsing is influenced by function words that appear in a sentence and also by various morphemes that signal syntactic role. -Also seems to be guided by an assumption of minimal attachment means that the listener or reader proceeds through sentences seeking simplest phrase structure that will accommodate words heard so far. -Tendency to miss-read a sentence such as “The secretary applauded for his efforts was soon promoted” is encouraged by other factors as well -Embedded clause is in passive voice (secretary applauded by someone else); tendency to assume active voice worked against correct interpretation of sentence. Semantics as a Guide to Paraphrasing -Secretary sentence also complicated by an additional factor; the sentence said “The secretary applauded for his efforts…” people assume when reading this sentence that the secretary is a woman hence his must refer to someone else. -Parsing is also guided by semantic factors and not just syntax. -Understanding active sentences is only easier if the sentence is reversible “The dog nipped the cat”, “The cat nipped the dog”, also makes sense. -People seem sensitive to certain statistical properties in language; if word has several meanings you tend to assume its most frequent meaning whenever you encounter the word. -Assume that adjectives will be followed by nouns; not obligatory pattern but still frequent. 4 The Extralinguistic Context -Context can provide important aids for sentence understanding. -Factors outside of language itself (extralinguistic context) are also important. -“Put the apple on the towel into the box”; if you are in a situation where there are two apples and one is one a towel and one is on the counter you understand the sentence better. The Use of Language: What is Left Unsaid -What does it mean to know a language? -Language users rely on further set of principles whenever they perceive and understand linguistic inputs. -Some principles rooted in syntax (minimal attachment) -Others are rooted in semantics (know if relationships is reversible or not) -Others seem pragmatic (extralinguistic) -These factors interact so that our understanding of the sentences we hear seems guided by all of the principles at the same time. -Complexity of language is still understated after this. -Another source of information useful in parsing rise and fall of speech intonation and pattern of pauses. -Rhythm and pitch cues together are called prosody play important role in speech perception. -It can also reveal the mood of the speaker and direct the listeners’ attention by specifying the focus or theme of a sentence. -Can also render unambiguous a sentence that would otherwise be entirely confusing. -If you are asked “Do you know the time?” you understand this as a request that you report the time despite the fact that it is a yes or no question. -Pragmatics Knowledge of how language is ordinarily used. -Everyone uses language all the time; but language is complicated. The Biological Roots of Language -How is it that ordinary human beings manage the task of mastering fluently used language? -Humans are equipped with extremely sophisticated neural machinery specialized for learning and then using language. Aphasias -Aphasia damage that causes disruption of language -Particular symptoms are largely dependent on locus of the brain damage. -2 broad classes of aphasia -Damage to left frontal lobe of brain, especially area known as Broca’s area -Produce pattern of symptoms known as non-fluent aphasia -Severe cases, only part of normal vocabulary is lost but speech becomes labored and fragmented and articulating words requires special effort. -Damage to brain area known as Wernicke’s area, usually involved pattern fluent aphasia -Patients produce speech but even though they talk freely and rapidly they say very little. -Sentences they produce are grammatically correct for the most part but use a lot of little filler words that provide scant information. -Each process relies on its own set of brain pathways so damage to pathways disrupts the process. -Language loss observed in aphasia is quite specific with impairment just to a particular processing step. -Some suffer from anomia Loss of ability to name various objects as if their brain damage caused disruption to mental dictionary. -Some can use concrete nouns and not abstract -Some can name animate objects but not inanimate -Some lose the ability to name colors. -Makes it clear that certain areas of the brain are specialized for language processing. 5 The Biology of Language Learning -By 3 or 4 almost every child is reasonably competent in communicating wishes and desires. -Children learn language even if their communication with adults is entirely non-linguistic. -Children born deaf -Language still emerges; they invent their own language which shows many parallels to normal language. -Invented language has many formal structures routinely seen in world’s existing language and follows same sequences as observed in normal language. -Perhaps children are born with brain structures in place that define broad structure of human language. -Learning process is one in which the child simply has to figure out the universal structure is realized within his language community. -Support for this comes from the facts that certain brain structures do seem specialized for language learning so that damage to these structures causes disruption of language acquisition. -Individuals with specific language impairment have normal intelligence and no problems with muscle movement needed to produce language, but they are slow to learn and throughout their lives have difficulty understanding and producing sentences. -Impaired on tasks designed specifically to test their knowledge. The Processes of Language Learning -Learning does play crucial role in acquisition of language. -Children grow up in China speak Chinese. -Language learning depends on child picking up information from her environment. -What learning mechanisms are involved? -Data offers challenged for hinging on imitation -English speaking children learn to form past tense by proceeding in a word-by-word fashion and so memorize that the past tense of play is played. -By age 3 they realize they don’t have to memorize. -Realize they can produce past tense by manipulating morphemes; adding “ed” -Children at this age use many overregulization errors say things like “yesterday we goed” -They also over=generalize plural endings such as “I have two foots” -Children are therefore producing forms they’ve invented themselves. -The idea that language is a matter of explicit instructions from parents is also false. -Adults rarely correct child grammar. -Adults react to the messages that children convey in language -What do learning mechanisms involve then? -Key element rests on fact that children are sensitive to patterns and regularities in what they hear. -8 month old infants heard 2 minute tape recording that sound like :“bidakupadotigolabubidaku” -Arranged it so that is bida was heard, ku would follow. -Babies learned vocabulary of made-up language; detected statistical pattern of which syllables followed which -Language learning also relies on a theme that has been in view throughout chapter; language has many elements (syntax, semantics, phonology, etc) and these interact in ordinary language use. -Language learning also relies on all these elements in interacting fashion. -Children rely on prosody as clues to syntax -Children also rely on their vocabulary listening for words that they already know as clues to help them process more complex strings of words. -They rely on their knowledge of semantic relationships as basis for figuring out syntax known as semantic bootstrapping. -Complexity of language both burden and aid for child. 6 Language and Thought -Language that we use shapes the flow of our ideas; therefore we can shape what we think. -Verbal descriptions provide label for complex experience which in turn provides a way of coding, chunking that experience. -Labeling has powerful effect on memory. -Language can influence how we reason and make decisions. -So called framing effects patient is more likely to choose medical treatment if told that it has 50% chance of success than 50% chance of failure. -Do people who speak different languages think differently? -Benjamin Whorf believed that specific language we speak does force us into certain modes of thought, a claim known as linguistic relativity -He tried to show that Hopi speakers think about time differently than English speakers but only evidence was the ways that Hopi expressed themselves when talking about different events. -Evidence only indicates that the way one expresses oneself is influenced by language -One line of work trying to find rigorous tests of Whorf’s proposal -Examined how we perceive colors in our world, some languages have different terms for colours. -Having rich colour vocabulary helps people remember colors but does not change how colors are perceived. -People who speak languages with richer color vocabulary may perceive colors differently; making finer and more sharply defined distinctions. -Languages differ in how they describe spatial arrangement. -Absolute directions (north or east does matter where you are facing, or relative directions)(left or right, doesn’t matter which way you are facing) -These language differences lead to corresponding differences in how people remember and perceive spatial position. -This data has many possibilities -Language truly restructures cognition so that language you speak determines concepts and categories you sue and shapes what you can think about. -Labels provided by language draw attention to distinction between red and not red. -Drawing of attention makes it likely that we will think about distinction periodically; provides practice in thinking about distinction. -Language does end up influencing cognition, not because direct link, but because language influences what we pay attention to which shapes experience. -Language is just one of the ways we can guide someone’s attention to this or that aspect of experience. -We can often undo the effects of language by using some other means to redirect someone’s attention. Cognitive- Textbook Chapter 11: Visual Knowledge -People describe thoughts in a variety of ways; -Claim their thoughts seem to be formulated in words. -Sometimes more abstract. -Sometimes involve series of pictures or sounds. Visual Imagery -What do Johnny Depp and Brad Pitt look like, need to call picture of each before you mind’s eye in order to make comparison. -Mental pictures cannot be actual pictures. Introspections About Images 7 -Galton Describe images and rate their vividness -Introspect Look within -Self report data he gathered fit well with common sense; participants could inspect images as they would inspect a picture. -Could read off details of colour and texture. -Another side to his data; participants differed widely from one another. -Some reported very vivid details and others reported sketchy images. -Concerns: -Maybe we should not be taking this data for face value. -Maybe they differed on how they chose to describe imagery. -Differences in how people talk about their imagery. Chronometric Studies of Imagery -Ask people to do something with their images to ensure they are approaching it objectively. -Can examine how fast and accurate people are at responding, and can use these to test hypotheses about nature of imagery. -Chronometric Studies give us much more accurate portrait of mental imagery than self-report data. -Allow us to see what sorts of information are prominent in mental imagery and which aren’t. -Write paragraph about cat; would not write “cat has head”, draw picture of cat; crucial to draw the head. -Pattern of what information is included depends on the mode of presentation. -For description features that are prominent will be those that are distinctive and strongly associated with object being described. -For depiction Distinctiveness and association don’t matter; size and position will determine what is prominent and what isn’t. -Self reports about imagery indicate a picture like representation; is this confirmed? -Participants asked to form series of mental images and to answer yes/ no questions about each -Responses to head question were quicker than claws. -Information quickly available in image follows rules for pictures, not paragraphs. -People have option of thinking about cats through imagery and also without imagery; as mode of representation changes so does pattern of information availability -In another experiment asked to memorize fictional map and memorize locations of various landmarks. -Data from this image scanning procedure suggested that participants scan across their images at a constant rate so that doubling scanning distance doubles time required for scan. -Zoom in & zoom out response times directly proportional to amount of zoom required -Experiment where they asked participants to picture mouse beside elephant and then asked if mouse had whiskers -Had to zoom in on mouse. -Response time faster if participants initially asked to imagine mouse standing next to paper clip. -Clear relationship between travel time and travel distance. -Telling us a great deal about the nature of mental images -Images represented scene in a fashion that preserves all of the distance relationships within that scene -Image preserves spatial layout of represented scene. -With this it will: 8 -Represent information about shapes and sizes within scene. -Preserve diverse set of spatial relationships. -Images represent geometry of scene; thy depict rather than describe (pictures/maps) Mental Rotation -Transformation of mental images. -Asked to describe whether certain displays show two different shapes or just the shape viewed from two different perspectives -To perform mental rotation task Participants seem first to imagine one of forms rotating into alignment with the other. -Make judgments once forms are oriented in same way. -Amount of time it takes depends on how much rotation is needed. -People have no trouble with mental rotation in depth; data resemble picture-plane rotation. -Apparently people can represent three-dimensional forms in their images, and can imagine them moving in depth. -Sometimes visual images are not mental pictures but are mental sculptures. Avoiding Concerns About Demand Character -Perhaps participants simply control timing of their responses in order to recreate the “normal” pattern of knowing that movement through the world takes time so moving a longer distance takes more time. -Participants usually want to be helpful so they do all they can to provide experimenter with good data. -Sensitive to the demand of character of the experiment (cues that might signal how they are supposed to behave in experiment) -Another possibility is that this sort of stimulation is what imagery is really all about. -When someone tries to imagine something they could be drawing on events that have actually occurred and tries to simulate it. -Can push these aside and state that scanning and rotation data are as they are because of how images represent spatial layout. Interactions Between Imagery and Perception -Important parallels between visual images and actual visual stimuli. -What is the relation between imaging and perceiving? -Segal & Fusella -Participants asked to detect faint signals (dim visual stimuli & soft tones) -Asked whether presented or not. -Either formed visual image in mind’s eye or auditory image in mind’s ear. -If processes overlap and are occupied by imaging, they are not available for perceiving; expect competition if participants try to do both activities at once. -Forming visual image interferes with seeing; forming auditory image interferes with hearing. -Can visualizing stimulus pave the way for perception? -Participants visualized a form either H or T -Presented letter at low contrast; difficult to see. -Perception was easier if participants were just visualizing target forms (visualizing H made it easier to perceive H). -Visualizing and perceiving draw on similar mechanisms; one can prime the other. -Many structures that are crucial for vision are also crucial for imagery. -Seen in neuroimaging . -Visual perception relies heavily on tissue located in occipital cortex (highly activated whenever someone is examining a visual stimulus; also high when visualizing stimulus before mind’s eye). -Areas V1 and V2 in the visual cortex involved in earliest stages of visual perception, responding to specific low-level features of input. 9 -Highly active while maintaining highly detailed images. -Amount of brain tissue showing activation increases as the image object gets larger. -MT/MST in brain highly sensitive to motion in ordinary visual perception; particularly activated when participants asked to imagine movement patterns. -Studies with brain damage patients also helps. -Some has disrupted ability to perceive color, most cases also lose ability to imagine scenes in color -Patients with lost ability to perceive fine detail seem to lose ability to visualize fine detail. -Patient had stroke and developed neglect syndrome -See only right side of pictures. -Same with his imagery, listed plazas on western side and not east. -More evidence comes from transcranial magnetic stimulation. -Creates series of strong magnetic pulses at specific location on scalp which causes disruption in brain region directly underneath scalp area. -Possible to disrupt Area V1 temporarily in normal brain (V1 is where axons from visual system first reach cortex) -Causes problems in vision, and also in visual imagery. Sensory Effects in Imagery -Sharing of neural mechanisms between imagery and perception implies that they should function in similar ways. -Research agrees and indicates a functional equivalence between many aspects of visual imagery and aspects of visual perception (series of close parallels between how two systems function) -Visual Acuity ability to see in fine detail -In vision acuity is much greater at center of visual field tual -Measurements in two-point acuity test if similar pattern emerges for imagery. -Dots far enough apart, observer can see easily they are separate. -Two-point acuity is greater in vision when people are looking directly at dots. -Data shows correspondence between participant’s performance with actually perceived dots and performance with imaged dots. -Acuity fell off if dots were not in center of vision, acuity falls off faster if participants look above or below two dots rather than left or right. Spatial Images and Visual Images -Evidence implies we can truly speak of imagery as being visual imagery drawing on same mechanisms and having same traits as actual vision. -Imagery in blind people since birth. -In tests involved in mental rotation or image scanning, blind individuals yield data quite similar to those obtained with sighted research participants response time was proportionate to distance traveled. -They have some other means of thinking about spatial layout and spatial relations. -Spatial imagery might be represented in terms of imagined movements (body imagery rather than visual imagery). -Maybe spatial imagery is not tied to any sensory modality but is part of our broader cognition about spatial arrangements and layout. -Visual imagery represents spatial layout in terms of how things look. -Movements or body feelings. -Patients who have lost their color visions also seem to lose ability to imagine scenes in color; patients who lost ability to perceive motion also lose ability to imagine movement. Exceptions -Goldenberg had patient whose bilateral occipital lobe lesions have produced blindness but 10 does well on imagery tasks. -Patients who do well on imagery tasks despite visual agnosia. -Some show pattern of neglect syndrome in vision but not imagery; vice versa. -Visual imagery relies on brain areas that are also needed for vision, damage to this area disrupts both imagery and vision. -Spatial imagery relies on different brain areas so damage to visual areas won’t interfere with this form of imagery, damage to brain sites needed for this imagery won’t interfere with vision. -L.H -Brain damage; difficulty in tasks requiring judgments about visual appearance (judgments about color) -Performs well on tasks like image scanning or mental rotation; little disruptions on tasks requiring special manipulations. Individual Differences -Evidence suggests at least two types of imagery 1.Spatial 2.Visual -Some tasks require one form of imagery or the other. -Thinking about colors you need to imagine exactly what something looks like; need visual. -Choice between what you use will be influenced by each individual’s ability levels; some poor visualizers but good spatializers. -People with vivid imagery report that their images are truly picture-like (color, detailed) -10% of population declared themselves entirely deficient in the power of seeing mental pictures. -Many studies found no difference between vivid imagers and spatial imagers in how they do mental rotation. -These tasks could have been performed with spatial imagery. -The self-report provides an assessment of visual imagery -Unsurprising that there is no relationship between self-report and performance of these spatial tasks; no reason to think that how vivid someone’s visual imagery is well be related to how good she is at spatial performance. -There should be relationship between image vividness and how well people perform on visual tasks. -Imagery self-reports are meaningful and do reveal genuine differences from one person to the next in quality of imagery experience. Images Are Not Pictures -Referred to mental images as mental pictures. -Visual imagers do depict a scene in fashion that seems quite pictorial; this comparison can be misleading. -Necker cube is ambiguous; doesn’t specify in any way whether it shows Cube A or Cube B; picture is neutral with regard to interpretations. -Perception of the cube however, is not neutral. -Perception goes beyond the information given by specifying a configuration in depth. -Our perception of stimulus also specifies a figure/ground organization and the form’s orientation. -These serve to organize the form and have an enormous impact on subjective appearance of the form.| -Need to be clear that our percepts (mental representations of stimulus we are perceiving) are in some ways similar to pictures but also different. -Percepts are depictions and are not descriptions of a stimulus. -They show directly what a stimulus looks like; percepts are different from pictures; they are organized and unambiguous in fashion pictures are not. 11 -One line of evidence comes from studies of ambiguous figures -After figure had been removed from view (picture of duck/rabbit) asked to reinterpret image; not one person succeeded in reinterpreting images. -All of them were able to reinterpret after looking at drawing on blank piece of paper. -We have 100% failure in reinterpreting forms with images, and 100% success moment later with drawings. -What participants see is not a picture neutral with regard to interpretation, instead images are inherently organized. Learning From Images -Participants universally failed to make simple discovery from image. -We routinely consult images to solve problems or make decisions. -Images are organized depictions and are understood by imager in certain ways. -Need to think of mental image as a package including both the depiction and the perceptual reference frame. -Package that she is inspecting so discoveries must be ones about package. -Discoveries about the images form will be guided by both depiction and reference frame. -Discovery fits with depiction but now with the reference frame so it is compatible with only part of package. -Hint should do the trick; they do have large effects. -Asked to memorize series of nonsense shapes. -Asked to form image and then imagine it rotated 90 degrees clockwise. -Resembles familiar geographic form and asked to identify it. -With wrong understanding, specifying wrong top; zero participants were able to discover Texas. -Participants were led through same procedure an instructed to change understanding; were now able to discover Texas. -Obstacle to discovery is how participants understand the image. -Thus understanding sets boundaries on what can be discovered about image. -Discoveries compatible with imager’s understanding of form flow easily form image while discoveries incompatible with understanding are rare. -Changes in reference frame are surprisingly difficult and often dependent on specific instructions or specific training examples. Images and Pictures: An Interim Summary -Visual and spatial images provide distinctive means of representing the world. -Images are truly picture like because they show exactly what a form looks like; more likely you’ll remember other forms with similar appearance. -Also will make some attributes of a form more prominent than others. -Images are inherently organized in a way pictures are not. Long-Term Visual Memory -What about visual information in long-term memory? -Image Information in Long-Term Memory -Perhaps we can think about node perspective to account for long-term storage of visual information. -Nodes in long-term can represent entire pictures; evidence shows that images seem to be stored in memory in piecemeal fashion. -Have to activate nodes specifying image frame to form global shape; elaborations can be added. a.i.1.Images containing more parts take longer to create just as we would expect if images are formed on piece-by-piece basis. a.i.2.Images containing more detail take longer to create. a.i.3.We know that imagers have some degree of control so that images can be quite 12 sketchy or elaborate. -How does imager know how to construct image? -Drawn from image files in long-term memory -Image file contains something like a set of instructions for creating image; could be instructed to create picture. Verbal Coding of Visual Materials -Visual information can be represented in long-term storage by a verbal label. -Colors are easier to remember if one has a label for it so individual with larger color vocabularies have better color memories. -In some cases visual information may be stored in memory not via imagery but as description of previously viewed object. -Memory is improved when appropriate label or description is available. -People can end up recalling picture in fashion that is distorted by their understanding of it or is their description was selective. -Knowledge that seems visual may be stored in memory in some non-visual representation. Imagery Helps Memory -Clear that images influence memory in important ways and imagery improves memory. -Participants presented with list of nouns and asked t rate each noun on how readily it evokes images such as “church.” -Asked whether these imagery ratings can be used to predict memory performance with new group -Participants learn high imagery words more readily than low. -Can be aided by mnemonics; intermediate performance by group that generated sentences but still did worse than imagery group. -Memory is best if imagery shows images interacting in some way; organization. -Most effective if picture is in some fashion bizarre rather than showing ordinary interaction. Dual Coding -Imagery improves memory. -Imaginable material such as high-imagery words are doubly represented in memory. -Words itself will be remembered and so will corresponding picture dual coding. -When time comes to retrieve these memories either record will provide the information you seek; doubling chance of locating information. -Imagery mnemonics work by encouraging people to lay down two different memory record- propositional record and image. -Dual coding proposal argues that two types of memory differ from each other in important ways. -Access to symbolic memories say it is easiest if cue if provided is a word; access to image- based memory is easiest if one begins with picture. -Semantic associations are more easily stored via symbolic memories. -Information about size or shape are more readily accessed from remembered images. Memory For Pictures -Paivio proposed that there are two separate memory systems one containing the symbolic memories and other containing images. -Many psychologists would argue that there is just a single memory. -Images in long-term storage reside within single memory system. -Recall of both memory types is dependent on memory connections; priming effects can be observed with both types of memory; encoding specificity is observed in both domains. -Shown pictures of typical kitchen-pictured also contained unexpected objects such as fireplace. -Participants rarely noticed changes that were typical such as changing stove. -Both original and altered pictures were fully consistent with kitchen schema so both would be compatible with schema-based memory. 13 -Almost always noticed changes to unexpected objects such as the fireplace. -Fireplace did not fit with kitchen so was likely to be specifically noted in memory. -If recognition memory is tested with kitchen without fireplace, spot this discrepancy easily because picture does not fit with remembered description. -When understanding a story people place it within a schematic frame which can often lead to intrusion errors. -Boundary Extension in picture memory People remember a picture as including more than it actually did in effect extending the boundaries of remembered depiction. -Participants remember scene as less f a close-up view than it actually was; remember the scene as containing more of the backdrop than it actually did. -Effect is observed whether participants initially see few pictures or many whether they are tested right after or delay. -This boundary extension arises from way in which people perceive pictures originally. -People understand picture by means of perceptual schema, which places picture in larger context informing them about real-world scene only partially revealed by picture. -This influences memory which interweaves what people saw with what they expected; this effect resembles intrusion error produced by knowledge schemata. -People showing better memory for schema itself than for details of particular stimulus. -Participants show primacy and recency effects when they learn series of pictures. -Spread of activation and priming can be demonstrated with non-verbal materials. The Diversity of Knowledge -Active images held in working memory are different from other mental contents. -They contain different information and make different information prominent; require a set of operations irrelevant to other sorts of memory contents. -Image-based memories seem to be stored in same memory system as every other memory so are influenced by exactly same principles. -Memory for faces benefits from rehearsal. -Separation between familiarity and source memory can be demonstrated for remembered music or remembered faces. -There really is just one long-term memory with a set of rules consistently applicable to all its diverse contents. -Claims about singularity of long-term memory must remain tentative. Cognitive- Chapter 12 Judgment: Drawing Conclusions From Evidence Introduction -We often take actions based on knowledge that we have created for ourselves by drawing inferences based on things we have seen or heard. -Draw conclusions from our experience. -Induction process in which you try to go beyond the available information or making projections about novel cases -Never guaranteed to be true -Descriptive account how process ordinarily proceeds -Normative account How things ought to go. Judgment Heuristics -Process of education depends on the teacher AND the student bi directionally. -Capacity to learn depends on person who has that experience and depends on their memory. -Conclusions drawn from memory rest on memories stretching back across considerable time period. 14 -They can be distorted, and the validity is questioned. Attribute Substitution -Anything you can do to help yourself so memory problems are less likely to pull you off track? -Attribute substitution Use when trying to evaluate some point but don’t have easy access to the target information. -Rely on some other aspect of experience
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