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Cognitive Psychology First Midterm Review.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

Midterm Review 10/3/2012 10:32:00 AM Word Superiority Effect - bottom-up processing is the belief that our pattern recognition system is only dependent on the amount of information coming in visually to recognize letters, words or patterns - AKA, only raw sensory information is needed to match what we see to a representation stored in memory - If this theory were true, then individual letters should be recognized better and faster than words with multiple letters - Therefore, there must be other processes at work as well—top-down processing is where information coming into the system is influenced by what we already know, or our expectations - Context effects were seen in an experiment by Warren and Warren— the phonemic restoration effect—context of a sentence can influence what people believe they heard Serial Positioning - Our tendency to remember a piece of information is partly dependent on where in a listen it appears (its serial position) - The serial position curve is composed of many parts: the recency effect is the tendency to remember the words at the end of a list due to short term memory and the tendency to remember words at the beginning of the list is because you were able to practice the words more often and they have a primacy effect and were probably stored in your long term memory - Other factors other than serial positioning impact the likelihood of remembering a word—imageability influences memory as well as words that already exist in a persons memory and cognition and have a special meaning to them - The word frequency effect states that the relative frequency of words as used in a language strobly impact their likelihood of recall or recognition—common, high frequency words are better recalled because they are easier to activate and low frequency words are easier to pick out in a recognition task because that are more distinctive and less like words that we use on a regular basis—therefore, high frequency words have an advantage in recall but low frequency words have an advantage in recognition tasks Spatial Cueing - Reaction times depend on cueing that precedes it - Reaction times are faster when there is a neutral cue and when the arrow points in the right direction—the cue attracts our visual attention, causing our attention to move as a ray of lig
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