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PSYC 2650 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Fusiform Face Area, Chronometry, Cognitive Deficit

Course Code
PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan
Study Guide

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Midterm Review 10/3/2012 10:32:00 AM
Word Superiority Effect
- bottom-up processing is the belief that our pattern recognition system
is only dependent on the amount of information coming in visually to
recognize letters, words or patterns
- AKA, only raw sensory information is needed to match what we see to
a representation stored in memory
- If this theory were true, then individual letters should be recognized
better and faster than words with multiple letters
- Therefore, there must be other processes at work as welltop-down
processing is where information coming into the system is influenced by
what we already know, or our expectations
- Context effects were seen in an experiment by Warren and Warren
the phonemic restoration effectcontext of a sentence can influence what
people believe they heard
Serial Positioning
- Our tendency to remember a piece of information is partly dependent
on where in a listen it appears (its serial position)
- The serial position curve is composed of many parts: the recency
effect is the tendency to remember the words at the end of a list due to
short term memory and the tendency to remember words at the
beginning of the list is because you were able to practice the words more
often and they have a primacy effect and were probably stored in your
long term memory
- Other factors other than serial positioning impact the likelihood of
remembering a wordimageability influences memory as well as words
that already exist in a persons memory and cognition and have a special
meaning to them
- The word frequency effect states that the relative frequency of words
as used in a language strobly impact their likelihood of recall or
recognitioncommon, high frequency words are better recalled because
they are easier to activate and low frequency words are easier to pick out
in a recognition task because that are more distinctive and less like words
that we use on a regular basistherefore, high frequency words have an
advantage in recall but low frequency words have an advantage in
recognition tasks
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Spatial Cueing
- Reaction times depend on cueing that precedes it
- Reaction times are faster when there is a neutral cue and when the
arrow points in the right directionthe cue attracts our visual attention,
causing our attention to move as a ray of light in the direction of the
- Damage to the Fusiform Face Area which allows us to recognize subtle
distinctions between things as well as faces
- FFA victims cant identify a face but can identify a pendamage to the
FFA may prevent them from identifying a unique type of pen within the
Post Stimulus Mask
- Stops the stimulus from being repeated in your memory
- Stops it from being processed, so guarantees we only process the
stimulus for a set period of time
Stimulus Onset Asynchrony
- The shorter the SOA, the less time there is for the cue to influence the
focus of attention before the target appears, therefore if it is really short
there is no reaction time difference between the stimulus this is neutral
- At 100 ms there starts to be a noticeable difference in reaction time
and at 200ms and on you have enough time to take full advantage of the
SOA and RT interference
- The dual task study gives members two separate stimuli (one visual
and one auditory)for each of the stimuli, you have to generate a
response that utilizes the central cognitive resourcesfor the visual
stimuli, the screen would show a number and based on that number you
put up a fingerfor the auditory stimulus, they play a pitch and
depending on the pitch you put up a fingertherefore ensuring that the
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