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Midterm

Exam 2.docx

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School
University of Guelph
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2650
Professor
Karl Hennig
Semester
Fall

Description
LONG TERM MEMORY Episodic memory: remembering parts of ones life; autobiographical memory; particular thing that happened at a particular time o Recalling memories from a specific time Semantic memory: things you are aware of; based on knowledge, not personal experience History Herman Ebbinghaus o Wrote On Memory in 1885 o At the time introspection was the normal method of study o The way he studied memory was not popular; ahead of his time o Pioneer in the study of memory o Before Ebbinghaus people started with formed ideas and looked backwards to find the source o He studied how memory developed o Was able to bring many variables under scientific control o E studied how memory developed by introducing something the subject knew noting about and developed the memory from scratch; controlled the exposure to the memory o Resembles how learning was studied by behaviourists Ebbinghaus and Experimental Control o To-Be-Remembered Stimuli No prior experience with the memory Meaningless; with no semantic associations to avoid the use of memory strategies to help the individual remember/ make associations Non-Sense Syllables: consonant-vowel-consonant Pronounceable but not a known word (experiments were conducted in German) o Independent Variables Retention Interval: time interval over which the subject has to remember the information Longer retention intervals are bad for memory because memory fades with time List Length More thing to remember have a negative result on memory Extended Practice (over learning) Serial Order Being exposed to a memory in a certain order leads to the expectation that when exposed to the memory again, it will be shows in the same order o Dependent Variable Retention savings Example Ebbinghaus Experiment o Study list of nonsense syllables o Measure study time for 2 perfect recitation o Independent variable: retention interval (ranging from 20min to 31 days) o Relearn list after retention interval and re-measure study time for two perfect recitations o Measure how much time it took to remember something perfectly o Study time in the second occasion would be shorter o Calculating Retention Savings: savings= study time before RI study time after RI Study time before RI o Retention interval 20min Study time before RI= 1000 sec Study time after RI= 400 sec Savings= ](1000-400)/1000]x 100 = 60% Ebbinghaus Forgetting Function o Function that captures retention interval as the independent variable (x axis) and retention as the dependent variable (y axis) o Memory decay is not a linear function o Rapidly loss of information, then asymptotes o 30% savings measure: after 30% retention, we remember that information for an extended period of time (long term memory) Extended Practice o After learning the list until two perfect recitals, recite list 30 more times o Using a 24 hour retention interval, his savings in relearning this overlearned list was 64% compared to the 34% from normal learning o Overlearning has almost doubles retention savings Serial Order o Strength of the association between adjacent items on the list o Direction of associations: forward and backwards o Forward association: expectation of what comes afterwards o Backwards association: expectation of what comes before o Ex: track listing on a CD o Example list: MEV, GOR, DUX Forward association: would presenting MEV evoke GOR? Backward association: would presenting GOR evoke MEV? o Experiment: Learned 3 lists of 8 stimuli Then relearned each list under different conditions Same order, reversed order, random order o If forward associations exist, then savings on relearning the same list would be greater than savings for a random list o If backward associations exist, then savings on relearning the reversed list would be greater than savings for a random list o Results: forward and backward associations both exist, but forward associations are stronger Same: 33% Reversed: 12% Random: 0% Strengths in Ebbinhaus Approach o Meticulous selection of stimuli o Defining relevant independent variables o Innovative dependent measures to measure strength of memory traces Problems with Ebbinhaus Approach o Some non-sense syllables may have meaning (eg. Dux= ducks) o He used himself has a subject o Representativeness? : can he be considered a representation of the population? o Expertise? : did he have too much experience with the subject? o Bias? : did his own opinions reflect the results of his experiment? Ebbinhaus Contributions to Cognitive Psychology of Memory o Encoding Extended practice List length o Storage Forward and backward associations o Retrieval Retention interval EPISODIC MEMORY Memory Encoding Factors that affect whether something gets stored in the Long Term Memory Primacy effect is because of quantity of rehearsal, what about quality? Elaboration: something more creative that just repeating information to yourself o Quality of practice is important for memory encoding o Involves embellishing a to-be-remembered item with additional information o If memory is embellished with other qualities, it is easier to remember o Building on memory trace makes it easier to remember because an interconnected series of memories can help to trace back and activate the original memory o Task: remember simple sentences like The doctor hated the lawyer Two study conditions Elaborative: generate an elaboration because of the malpractice suit Control: just read and study the sentence Memory test: complete the sentence Cued recall: finishing the sentence; cue to allow participant to remember the rest of the phrase Free recall: no cue to encourage the recollection of the memory Results: recall of the elaboration might lead to recall of the work when word would otherwise not be recalled Elaborative: 72% recall Control: 57% recall o Embellishment has to be done by the participant for it to have the effect o Self generating the embellishment increases the chance of remembering the information o Meaningful Elaboration: deep, meaningful processing of to-be-remembered information leads to a better memory than shallow processing Not all elaborative encoding is equal; meaningful elaboration is more successful Levels of processing (studied at U of T) Deep level of processing: really have to associate semantic value to the information Task: read pairs of associated words Two types of associations: semantic vs. rhymes Results: 81% semantic recall and 70% rhyme recall Nature of the association is different Shallow associations like rhyming dont include any semantic meaning or relevance o Self Reference: Test: kind, rigid, brave, selfish Does this word have an e? (shallow processing) Does this word describe you? (deep processing) o In the shallow processing, words dont necessarily commit to memory because it doesnt go through enough processing o Deep processing requires more processing Intention: commitment to trying to remember and encode information o Test: subjects saw a list of 24 words at 3 words per second Two task conditions: Deep: rate pleasantness of the word Shallow: check for e or g in the word Two learning conditions Intentional: you will be given a memory test Incidental: nave about memory test
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