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PSYC 2740 Midterm: PSYC2740 Midterm1 Review

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

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PSYC*2740 Midterm 1 Review ● Trait-descriptive adjectives: used to describe characteristics of people ● Personality: set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring that influence and that influences his or her interactions with, and adaptations to the environment ● State: temporary and situational ● Trait: characteristics describing how people differ, relatively consistent over time, refers to an average tendency ○ Describe people ○ Explain behaviour ○ Predict behaviour ● Individual uniqueness level approaches: ○ Nomothetic: recognize differences between people using statistical methods ○ Idiographic: research focusing on one person (qualitative) ● 6 domains of human nature: 1. D - dispositional: number and nature of traits 2. B - biological - biological systems are the foundation for personality 3. A - adaptational - how people cope, adapt and adjust to change 4. S - socio-cultural - personality is affected by the social and cultural environment 5. I - intrapsychic - mental mechanisms of personality outside of consciousness 6. C - cognitive-experiential - cognition and subjective experiences of ourselves and others ● Theory: serves to guide research, organize findings and make predictions ○ Evaluated by: Testability, Parsimony, Comprehensiveness, Heuristic Value and Compatibility & Integration ● Self report data (s-data) ○ Limitations: ■ honesty in responses, ■ not having self knowledge or objectivity to answer the questions ○ Structured - set reponses ■ Dichotomous (forced choice) ■ Likert ratings ● Pros: standardization and use of stats ● Cons: limited accuracy and limit in responses ○ Unstructured - unstructured ■ Open ended questions ● Pros: no limit in responses and detailed ● Cons: may not be standardized, limited use of stats ○ Event Sampling: ecological momentary assessment ■ A self report that occurs over time to assess variables that might change in real time ● Observer Data (o-data) ○ Gathering data from other individuals ■ Pros: access to unique data and multiple informants ■ Cons: objectivity. And respondents may not be able to infer internal processes ○ Naturalistic Setting: observations occur in a real life setting ○ Artificial Setting: observations occur in a setting that is created to resemble real life ● Test Data (t-data) ○ Uses standard testing situations to determine aspects of personality ○ Mechanical Recording: actometer recording activity level of kids ○ Physiological Data : fMRI of brain ○ Projective Tests: inkblot test ○ Limitations: ■ Participants may guess the trait being assessed and create an impression ■ Participants and researchers amy view testing situation differently ■ Influence of researcher on participant ● Reliability: whether data reflect the true level of what is being measured ○ Test-retest: scores of a measure correlate on repeated measures ○ Internal consistency: items on one measure correlate with each other ○ Inter-rater: ratings of one observer correlate with another ○ Response sets: response tendency unrelated to item content ■ Acquiescence - saying yes to everything ■ Extreme responding ■ Social desirability ● Validity: degree to which a test measures what it claims to measure ○ Face: if it appears to measure what its supposed to ○ Predictive: whether the test predicts criteria it is supposed to ○ Convergent: whether the test correlates with other similar tests ○ Discriminant: what the measure should not correlate with ○ Construct: includes all types of validity ● Generalizability: whether a measure retains validity over different contexts and samples ● Research designs: ○ Experimental: used to determine causality ■ An independent variable is manipulated to affect dependent variable ■ Participants are equivalent ■ Counterbalancing - person does 2 experimental conditions ○ Correlational: used to understand if 2 or more variables share a relation ■ Correlation coefficient: indicates direction and degree of relation ■ Limitations: shows directionality but not causation, third variable ○ Case studies ● Traits: 2 conceptualizations ○ Internal Causal Properties ■ Traits assumed to be internal ■ desires/needs are carried across setting and presumed to be causal ■ Traits may lie dormant ■ Helps rule out other causes for behaviour ○ Descriptive Summaries ■ Traits are descriptions of one’s attributes without assuming internal causality ■ They summarize behavioural trends ● Act Frequency Research Program ○ Traits: categories of acts ■ Act nomination - procedure to identify which act belongs in which trait category ■ Prototypicality judgement - which acts are central to each trait category ■ Recording of act performance - securing info on actual performance ○ Pros: ■ Identifies acts relating to most traits ■ Identifies behavioural regularities ■ Helps student meaning of hard to study traits ○ Cons: ■ No account for amount of context ■ Applies only to overt acts ■ Less theoretical ■ May prove difficult with complex traits ● 3 main approaches to identifying traits ○ In practice, all used together ○ 1. Lexical ■ All key individual differences are encoded within our language over time ■ Traits are important in communication ■ Criteria for identifying traits ● Synonym frequency - more important, more synonyms ● Cross-cultural universality ■ Pros ● Helps identify key differences initially ● Considers culture ■ Cons ● Some traits are ambiguous ● May not capture various types of speech ○ 2. Statistical ■ Factor analysis: identifies groups that co-vary and reduces traits into groups ○ 3. Theoretical ■ Theory determines important individual differences ■ Pros and cons coincide with theory’s strengths and weaknesses ● Major Trait Taxonomies ○ Eysenck’s Hierarchical Model of Personality ■ Psychoticism (aggressive, cold, impulsive, antisocial vs not), ■ Extraversion-Introversion (sociable, actively, lively, adventurous vs not) ■ Neuroticism-Emotional Stability (shy, moody, anxious, low esteem vs not) ■ Traits are presumed to be heritable and have identifiable physiological substrate ■ Criticism: ● Moderate heritability among many traits ● May have missed traits ○ Cattell’s 16 Factor Taxonomy ■ Goals: identify and measure key personality traits across various types of data ● 16 traits identified via factor analysis ■ Criticism: ● Rarely replicated ● Small number of traits capture key individual differences ○ Wiggins’ Circumplex Complex ■ Highlighted interpersonal traits that defined social exchange: Status and LoveCold-hearted Status Assured- Dominant Unassured- Submissive Warm Agreeable Adjacency Bipolarity Orthogonality Love Cold-hearted Status Assured- Dominant Unassured- Submissive Warm Agreeable Adjacency Bipolarity Orthogonality Love ■ ■ Advantages: ● explicit definition for “interpersonal behaviour” ● specified types of relationships between traits ○ Adjacency ○ Bipolarity ○ orthogonality ■ Criticisms: interpersonal relationship limited to 2 dimensions ○ Five-Factor Model (Big Five) ■ Openness: intellect/imaginative ■ Conscientiousness: organized, neat, practical ■ Extraversion ■ Agreeableness ■ Neuroticism: emotional stability ■ Pros: ● Factors have facets aka sub traits ● Strong empirical support ● Widespread applications ● Supported across cultures, languages and samples ■ Cons: ● Debate over 5th factor ● Research points to other factors ● Some suggest atheoretical ● May miss underlying physiological processes ■ Measured by the NEO-PI-R (neuroticism-extraversion-openness- personality inventory revised) kind of like a likert scale ■ Key findings ● High conscientiousness and emotional stability = good grades ● High neuroticism and low conscientiousness = gambling problem ● High agreeableness and extraversion = volunteering ● High agreeableness and emotional stability = forgiveness ● University pool: students who participated later in the term were less conscientious and more open to experience ● Social media: High extraversion and openness linked to high social media use. High neuroticism also linked to high social media use
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