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Midterm

PSYC 2740 Midterm: PSYC2740 Midterm1 Review

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2740
Professor
Stephen Lewis

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PSYC*2740 Midterm 1 Review
Trait-descriptive adjectives: used to describe characteristics of people
Personality: set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is
organized and relatively enduring that influence and that influences his or her
interactions with, and adaptations to the environment
State: temporary and situational
Trait: characteristics describing how people differ, relatively consistent over time, refers
to an average tendency
Describe people
Explain behaviour
Predict behaviour
Individual uniqueness level approaches:
Nomothetic: recognize differences between people using statistical methods
Idiographic: research focusing on one person (qualitative)
6 domains of human nature:
1. D - dispositional: number and nature of traits
2. B - biological - biological systems are the foundation for personality
3. A - adaptational - how people cope, adapt and adjust to change
4. S - socio-cultural - personality is affected by the social and cultural environment
5. I - intrapsychic - mental mechanisms of personality outside of consciousness
6. C - cognitive-experiential - cognition and subjective experiences of ourselves and
others
Theory: serves to guide research, organize findings and make predictions
Evaluated by: Testability, Parsimony, Comprehensiveness, Heuristic Value and
Compatibility & Integration
Self report data (s-data)
Limitations:
honesty in responses,
not having self knowledge or objectivity to answer the questions
Structured - set reponses
Dichotomous (forced choice)
Likert ratings
Pros: standardization and use of stats
Cons: limited accuracy and limit in responses
Unstructured - unstructured
Open ended questions
Pros: no limit in responses and detailed
Cons: may not be standardized, limited use of stats
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Event Sampling: ecological momentary assessment
A self report that occurs over time to assess variables that might change
in real time
Observer Data (o-data)
Gathering data from other individuals
Pros: access to unique data and multiple informants
Cons: objectivity. And respondents may not be able to infer internal
processes
Naturalistic Setting: observations occur in a real life setting
Artificial Setting: observations occur in a setting that is created to resemble real
life
Test Data (t-data)
Uses standard testing situations to determine aspects of personality
Mechanical Recording: actometer recording activity level of kids
Physiological Data : fMRI of brain
Projective Tests: inkblot test
Limitations:
Participants may guess the trait being assessed and create an impression
Participants and researchers amy view testing situation differently
Influence of researcher on participant
Reliability: whether data reflect the true level of what is being measured
Test-retest: scores of a measure correlate on repeated measures
Internal consistency: items on one measure correlate with each other
Inter-rater: ratings of one observer correlate with another
Response sets: response tendency unrelated to item content
Acquiescence - saying yes to everything
Extreme responding
Social desirability
Validity: degree to which a test measures what it claims to measure
Face: if it appears to measure what its supposed to
Predictive: whether the test predicts criteria it is supposed to
Convergent: whether the test correlates with other similar tests
Discriminant: what the measure should not correlate with
Construct: includes all types of validity
Generalizability: whether a measure retains validity over different contexts and samples
Research designs:
Experimental: used to determine causality
An independent variable is manipulated to affect dependent variable
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find more resources at oneclass.com
Participants are equivalent
Counterbalancing - person does 2 experimental conditions
Correlational: used to understand if 2 or more variables share a relation
Correlation coefficient: indicates direction and degree of relation
Limitations: shows directionality but not causation, third variable
Case studies
Traits: 2 conceptualizations
Internal Causal Properties
Traits assumed to be internal
desires/needs are carried across setting and presumed to be causal
Traits may lie dormant
Helps rule out other causes for behaviour
Descriptive Summaries
Traits are descriptions of one’s attributes without assuming internal
causality
They summarize behavioural trends
Act Frequency Research Program
Traits: categories of acts
Act nomination - procedure to identify which act belongs in which trait
category
Prototypicality judgement - which acts are central to each trait category
Recording of act performance - securing info on actual performance
Pros:
Identifies acts relating to most traits
Identifies behavioural regularities
Helps student meaning of hard to study traits
Cons:
No account for amount of context
Applies only to overt acts
Less theoretical
May prove difficult with complex traits
3 main approaches to identifying traits
In practice, all used together
1. Lexical
All key individual differences are encoded within our language over time
Traits are important in communication
Criteria for identifying traits
Synonym frequency - more important, more synonyms
Cross-cultural universality
Pros
Helps identify key differences initially
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find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
PSYC*2740 Midterm 1 Review ● Trait-descriptive adjectives: used to describe characteristics of people ● Personality: set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring that influence and that influences his or her interactions with, and adaptations to the environment ● State: temporary and situational ● Trait: characteristics describing how people differ, relatively consistent over time, refers to an average tendency ○ Describe people ○ Explain behaviour ○ Predict behaviour ● Individual uniqueness level approaches: ○ Nomothetic: recognize differences between people using statistical methods ○ Idiographic: research focusing on one person (qualitative) ● 6 domains of human nature: 1. D - dispositional: number and nature of traits 2. B - biological - biological systems are the foundation for personality 3. A - adaptational - how people cope, adapt and adjust to change 4. S - socio-cultural - personality is affected by the social and cultural environment 5. I - intrapsychic - mental mechanisms of personality outside of consciousness 6. C - cognitive-experiential - cognition and subjective experiences of ourselves and others ● Theory: serves to guide research, organize findings and make predictions ○ Evaluated by: Testability, Parsimony, Comprehensiveness, Heuristic Value and Compatibility & Integration ● Self report data (s-data) ○ Limitations: ■ honesty in responses, ■ not having self knowledge or objectivity to answer the questions ○ Structured - set reponses ■ Dichotomous (forced choice) ■ Likert ratings ● Pros: standardization and use of stats ● Cons: limited accuracy and limit in responses ○ Unstructured - unstructured ■ Open ended questions ● Pros: no limit in responses and detailed ● Cons: may not be standardized, limited use of stats ○ Event Sampling: ecological momentary assessment ■ A self report that occurs over time to assess variables that might change in real time ● Observer Data (o-data) ○ Gathering data from other individuals ■ Pros: access to unique data and multiple informants ■ Cons: objectivity. And respondents may not be able to infer internal processes ○ Naturalistic Setting: observations occur in a real life setting ○ Artificial Setting: observations occur in a setting that is created to resemble real life ● Test Data (t-data) ○ Uses standard testing situations to determine aspects of personality ○ Mechanical Recording: actometer recording activity level of kids ○ Physiological Data : fMRI of brain ○ Projective Tests: inkblot test ○ Limitations: ■ Participants may guess the trait being assessed and create an impression ■ Participants and researchers amy view testing situation differently ■ Influence of researcher on participant ● Reliability: whether data reflect the true level of what is being measured ○ Test-retest: scores of a measure correlate on repeated measures ○ Internal consistency: items on one measure correlate with each other ○ Inter-rater: ratings of one observer correlate with another ○ Response sets: response tendency unrelated to item content ■ Acquiescence - saying yes to everything ■ Extreme responding ■ Social desirability ● Validity: degree to which a test measures what it claims to measure ○ Face: if it appears to measure what its supposed to ○ Predictive: whether the test predicts criteria it is supposed to ○ Convergent: whether the test correlates with other similar tests ○ Discriminant: what the measure should not correlate with ○ Construct: includes all types of validity ● Generalizability: whether a measure retains validity over different contexts and samples ● Research designs: ○ Experimental: used to determine causality ■ An independent variable is manipulated to affect dependent variable ■ Participants are equivalent ■ Counterbalancing - person does 2 experimental conditions ○ Correlational: used to understand if 2 or more variables share a relation ■ Correlation coefficient: indicates direction and degree of relation ■ Limitations: shows directionality but not causation, third variable ○ Case studies ● Traits: 2 conceptualizations ○ Internal Causal Properties ■ Traits assumed to be internal ■ desires/needs are carried across setting and presumed to be causal ■ Traits may lie dormant ■ Helps rule out other causes for behaviour ○ Descriptive Summaries ■ Traits are descriptions of one’s attributes without assuming internal causality ■ They summarize behavioural trends ● Act Frequency Research Program ○ Traits: categories of acts ■ Act nomination - procedure to identify which act belongs in which trait category ■ Prototypicality judgement - which acts are central to each trait category ■ Recording of act performance - securing info on actual performance ○ Pros: ■ Identifies acts relating to most traits ■ Identifies behavioural regularities ■ Helps student meaning of hard to study traits ○ Cons: ■ No account for amount of context ■ Applies only to overt acts ■ Less theoretical ■ May prove difficult with complex traits ● 3 main approaches to identifying traits ○ In practice, all used together ○ 1. Lexical ■ All key individual differences are encoded within our language over time ■ Traits are important in communication ■ Criteria for identifying traits ● Synonym frequency - more important, more synonyms ● Cross-cultural universality ■ Pros ● Helps identify key differences initially ● Considers culture ■ Cons ● Some traits are ambiguous ● May not capture various types of speech ○ 2. Statistical ■ Factor analysis: identifies groups that co-vary and reduces traits into groups ○ 3. Theoretical ■ Theory determines important individual differences ■ Pros and cons coincide with theory’s strengths and weaknesses ● Major Trait Taxonomies ○ Eysenck’s Hierarchical Model of Personality ■ Psychoticism (aggressive, cold, impulsive, antisocial vs not), ■ Extraversion-Introversion (sociable, actively, lively, adventurous vs not) ■ Neuroticism-Emotional Stability (shy, moody, anxious, low esteem vs not) ■ Traits are presumed to be heritable and have identifiable physiological substrate ■ Criticism: ● Moderate heritability among many traits ● May have missed traits ○ Cattell’s 16 Factor Taxonomy ■ Goals: identify and measure key personality traits across various types of data ● 16 traits identified via factor analysis ■ Criticism: ● Rarely replicated ● Small number of traits capture key individual differences ○ Wiggins’ Circumplex Complex ■ Highlighted interpersonal traits that defined social exchange: Status and LoveCold-hearted Status Assured- Dominant Unassured- Submissive Warm Agreeable Adjacency Bipolarity Orthogonality Love Cold-hearted Status Assured- Dominant Unassured- Submissive Warm Agreeable Adjacency Bipolarity Orthogonality Love ■ ■ Advantages: ● explicit definition for “interpersonal behaviour” ● specified types of relationships between traits ○ Adjacency ○ Bipolarity ○ orthogonality ■ Criticisms: interpersonal relationship limited to 2 dimensions ○ Five-Factor Model (Big Five) ■ Openness: intellect/imaginative ■ Conscientiousness: organized, neat, practical ■ Extraversion ■ Agreeableness ■ Neuroticism: emotional stability ■ Pros: ● Factors have facets aka sub traits ● Strong empirical support ● Widespread applications ● Supported across cultures, languages and samples ■ Cons: ● Debate over 5th factor ● Research points to other factors ● Some suggest atheoretical ● May miss underlying physiological processes ■ Measured by the NEO-PI-R (neuroticism-extraversion-openness- personality inventory revised) kind of like a likert scale ■ Key findings ● High conscientiousness and emotional stability = good grades ● High neuroticism and low conscientiousness = gambling problem ● High agreeableness and extraversion = volunteering ● High agreeableness and emotional stability = forgiveness ● University pool: students who participated later in the term were less conscientious and more open to experience ● Social media: High extraversion and openness linked to high social media use. High neuroticism also linked to high social media use
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