PSYC 2740 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Suicidal Ideation, Casual Sex, Social Learning Theory

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
Department
Course
Professor
Personality Post Midterm 2
Sex, Gender and Personality
A few key terms
- sex difference- biological
- gender- socially means to be male and female
- gender stereotypes- not supported by research
Effect Size: calculating size of (sex) differences
- effect size (d)
- difference in standard deviation units
o small (0.2)
o medium (0.5)
o large (0.8)
- positive d men higher
- negative d women higher
- large effect sizes do not necessarily have implications for any one individual it’s about the
average of population
Sex Differences in Personality
- Temperament in Children
o Inhibitory Control: Girls>>Boys
o Perceptual Sensitivity: Favours girls
o Surgency: Favours boys
o Negative Affectivity: No significant difference
- The Big 5
o Extraversion
Women slightly higher in gregariousness (d=-0.15)
Men slightly higher on activity level (d=0.09)
Men moderately higher on assertiveness (d=0.50)
o Agreeableness
Women higher on trusting (d=-0.25) and tender-mindedness (d=-0.97)
Women smile more than men (d=-0.60)
Men more physically aggressive (moderate to larger d)
o Conscientiousness
Women slightly higher on order (d=-0.13)
o Neuroticism
Men and women similar on impulsiveness (d=0.06)
Women higher on anxiety/sadness (d=-0.28)
o No sex difference in openness
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- Emotions
o Positive emotions vs. negative emotions
o Women higher in frequency/ intensity in both
- Other Personality Factors
o Self-esteem: males score higher (d=0.21)
o Sexuality and mating
Men higher in both: interest in both casual sex and having more lifetime sex
partners
Sexual aggression
- Depression
o Women >> Men (2:1) overall (esp. ages 18-44)
o Women report more appetite symptoms
o Women report crying more; men are more aggressive
o Women more likely to seek help
o Nervous activity and neuroticism more common in women; inactivity more common in
men
o Men more socially withdrawn and report more aches; women more hurt feelings/low
esteem
o Women have higher rates of rumination (may lead to sustained symptoms) (dwelling on
past bad situations)
o Moen commit suicide at higher rates; women attempt suicide at higher rates
- Suicide
o Rates: higher in men (4:1)
o Rates of attempts: higher in women (3:1)
o Some reasons:
Men use more lethal methods
Men seek hep less
Men abuse more alcohol/ drugs at time of suicide
Women more likely to report past attempts
- Suicidal Ideation
o Neuroticism (depression, angry/hostility/ negativity) all related to suicidal ideation
o Females: high neuroticism correlated with suicidal ideation
o Males: low conscientiousness correlated with suicidal ideation
Gender Stereotypes
- Cognitive components
- Emotional components
- Behavioural components
- Similarities across cultures:
o Women: perceived as communal
o Men: perceived as more instrumental
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Theories of Sex Difference
- Socialization theory
o Sex differences due to reinforcement of being masculine or feminine related to social
learning theory
o Criticism: causality (e.g., parent child or vice versa)
o No origin of sex-differentiates socialization practices
- Social role theory
o Sex differences due to men and women being distributed into different
occupational/family roles
o Criticisms: no account of origin of sex-differentiated roles
- Hormonal
o Sex differences in testosterone linked with traditional sex differences in behaviours
o Criticism: hormone-behaviour link is bi-directional
o No account of origins of hormonal differences
- Evolution
o Sexes predicted to differ where people are recurrently face with different adaptive
problems
o Criticisms: no clear accounting of individual and within-sex differences
- Integrated Theory
Culture and Personality
- Culture
o Local within-group similarities
o Between group differences
- Collectively referred to as Cultural Variation
3 Approaches to Culture
- Evoked Culture
o Considers culture by focusing on phenomena that are triggered in different ways by
different environments
o 2 key parts:
Universal underlying mechanism  environmental differences in how
mechanism is activated
- Evoked Cooperation
o Example: food supply
o Cultural differences in degree to which groups share:
High variance = more (food) sharing
- Evoked Mating Strategies
o Impulsivity and early reproduction
Harsh, inconsistent childcare
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Document Summary

A few key terms sex difference- biological gender- socially means to be male and female gender stereotypes- not supported by research. Effect size: calculating size of (sex) differences effect size (d) Difference in standard deviation units: small (0. 2, medium (0. 5) large (0. 8) Negative d women higher large effect sizes do not necessarily have implications for any one individual it"s about the average of population. Inhibitory control: girls>>boys: perceptual sensitivity: favours girls, surgency: favours boys, negative affectivity: no significant difference. Men slightly higher on activity level (d=0. 09) Men moderately higher on assertiveness (d=0. 50: agreeableness. Women higher on trusting (d=-0. 25) and tender-mindedness (d=-0. 97) Men more physically aggressive (moderate to larger d: conscientiousness. Women slightly higher on order (d=-0. 13: neuroticism. Men and women similar on impulsiveness (d=0. 06) Women higher on anxiety/sadness (d=-0. 28: no sex difference in openness. Emotions: positive emotions vs. negative emotions, women higher in frequency/ intensity in both. Other personality factors: self-esteem: males score higher (d=0. 21, sexuality and mating.

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