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Midterm

Personality Post Midterm 2.docx

13 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2740
Professor
Stephen Lewis

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Personality Post Midterm 2 Sex, Gender and Personality A few key terms - sex difference- biological - gender- socially means to be male and female - gender stereotypes- not supported by research Effect Size: calculating size of (sex) differences - effect size (d) - difference in standard deviation units o small (0.2) o medium (0.5) o large (0.8) - positive d  men higher - negative d  women higher - large effect sizes do not necessarily have implications for any one individual it’s about the average of population Sex Differences in Personality - Temperament in Children o Inhibitory Control: Girls>>Boys o Perceptual Sensitivity: Favours girls o Surgency: Favours boys o Negative Affectivity: No significant difference - The Big 5 o Extraversion  Women slightly higher in gregariousness (d=-0.15)  Men slightly higher on activity level (d=0.09)  Men moderately higher on assertiveness (d=0.50) o Agreeableness  Women higher on trusting (d=-0.25) and tender-mindedness (d=-0.97)  Women smile more than men (d=-0.60)  Men more physically aggressive (moderate to larger d) o Conscientiousness  Women slightly higher on order (d=-0.13) o Neuroticism  Men and women similar on impulsiveness (d=0.06)  Women higher on anxiety/sadness (d=-0.28) o No sex difference in openness - Emotions o Positive emotions vs. negative emotions o Women higher in frequency/ intensity in both - Other Personality Factors o Self-esteem: males score higher (d=0.21) o Sexuality and mating  Men higher in both: interest in both casual sex and having more lifetime sex partners  Sexual aggression - Depression o Women >> Men (2:1) overall (esp. ages 18-44) o Women report more appetite symptoms o Women report crying more; men are more aggressive o Women more likely to seek help o Nervous activity and neuroticism more common in women; inactivity more common in men o Men more socially withdrawn and report more aches; women more hurt feelings/low esteem o Women have higher rates of rumination (may lead to sustained symptoms) (dwelling on past bad situations) o Moen commit suicide at higher rates; women attempt suicide at higher rates - Suicide o Rates: higher in men (4:1) o Rates of attempts: higher in women (3:1) o Some reasons:  Men use more lethal methods  Men seek hep less  Men abuse more alcohol/ drugs at time of suicide  Women more likely to report past attempts - Suicidal Ideation o Neuroticism (depression, angry/hostility/ negativity) all related to suicidal ideation o Females: high neuroticism correlated with suicidal ideation o Males: low conscientiousness correlated with suicidal ideation Gender Stereotypes - Cognitive components - Emotional components - Behavioural components - Similarities across cultures: o Women: perceived as communal o Men: perceived as more instrumental Theories of Sex Difference - Socialization theory o Sex differences due to reinforcement of being masculine or feminine related to social learning theory o Criticism: causality (e.g., parent child or vice versa) o No origin of sex-differentiates socialization practices - Social role theory o Sex differences due to men and women being distributed into different occupational/family roles o Criticisms: no account of origin of sex-differentiated roles - Hormonal o Sex differences in testosterone linked with traditional sex differences in behaviours o Criticism: hormone-behaviour link is bi-directional o No account of origins of hormonal differences - Evolution o Sexes predicted to differ where people are recurrently face with different adaptive problems o Criticisms: no clear accounting of individual and within-sex differences - Integrated Theory Culture and Personality - Culture o Local within-group similarities o Between –group differences - Collectively referred to as Cultural Variation 3 Approaches to Culture - Evoked Culture o Considers culture by focusing on phenomena that are triggered in different ways by different environments o 2 key parts:  Universal underlying mechanism  environmental differences in how mechanism is activated - Evoked Cooperation o Example: food supply o Cultural differences in degree to which groups share:  High variance = more (food) sharing - Evoked Mating Strategies o Impulsivity and early reproduction  Harsh, inconsistent childcare  Erratically provided resources  Marital discourse - Evoked Culture: Impact on Mating o China: marriages lasting parents invest in children and higher value on chastity/ virginity o Sweden: divorce more common; children born outside of marriage and lower value on chastity o Mating strategies may be differentially evoked in different cultures yields enduring cultural differences in mating strategies - Honors, Insults and Evoked Aggression o Insults: offensive public challenges that are met with confrontation and physical aggression o Assumption: all humans have capacity to develop sensitivity to insults and capacity to respond with violence - In the USA o Northern USA vs. Southern USA  Individuals from southern US states tend to: more likely to endorse violence and aggression as a response to an insult (for the purposes of protection) Transmitted Culture - Transmitted culture: representations in at least 1 person’s mind are transmitted to othersexample: moral values Cross-Cultural Marriages - Challenges o Prejudice, language, communication - Positive characteristics o Wide choice of models/ roles for children Cultural Differences in Self-Concept - Agency or independence o Concerns re: how you differentiate from this same larger group akin to individualism - Communion or interdependence o How you affiliate with or attach to a larger group akin to collectivism Acculturation - The process of adapting to the way’s of life of a new culture  Impacts cultural identity and self- identity Acculturation and Self-harm - Participants: o Asian adolescent females and their parents and sample of again women from the United Kingdom  ½ of adolescents had a history of self-harm in past year  ½ of Asian women had a history of self-harm in past year o Main Results  Adolescents were less traditional than their parents overall  Adolescents who were less traditional (in view of marriage and work) were at higher risk for self-harm  Having more traditional parents protected against self-harm  Women who self-harmed were less traditional vs. control women and vs. parents of adolescents who self-harmed o Conclusion:  Acculturation is specific domains may increase risk for self-harm o Why might this be the case? Cultural Differences in Self-Enhancement - self-enhancement: tendency to describe and present oneself with positive/socially-valued attributes - North-Americans (vs. Asians) maintain positive evaluation of self - Explanations: o Asians are engaging in impression management OR o Cultural differences are real and actually reflect true self-concepts Personality Variation within Culture - Impacts personality via: o Social class  Lower class obedience  Upper class self-direction o Historical Era Cultural Universals: - Beliefs about the sexes o Men  Active, loud, adventurous, obnoxious, aggressive, opinionated, arrogant, conceited o Women  Affectionate, modest, nervous, patient, changeable, charming, fearful - Emotional Experience and Expression - Personality Traits o Universality for:  Dominance and warmth  Big 5: extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability and conscientiousness The Adjustment Domain: Stress, Coping and Health Models of Personality – Illness Link - Interaction Model o Personality moderates the stress-illness link  o Interacts with coping, thus impacting illness susceptibility o Criticism: unable to identify stable coping responses that
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