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Personality Psychology Midterm 1 Notes

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PSYC 2740
Anneke Olthof

Personality Psychology: Midterm 1 chapters 2-7 Personality – set of psychological traits/mechanisms within an individual that is organized and relatively enduring (stable) and that influence interactions with, and adaptations to, the environment (intra psychic, physical, social environments) Mechanisms – process of personality: inputs  decision making  outputs Nomothetic – recognizes differences between people and uses stat methods Idiographic – research focusing on just one individual (qualitative) 6 Domains of Human Nature Dispositional – focuses on number and nature of traits (links to all domains, focuses on how people differ) Biological – views people as biological systems that are the foundation for personality Intrapsychic – largely pertains to mental mechanisms of personality outside of consciousness Cognitive-Experiential – pertains to cognition and subjective experiences of ourselves and other (thoughts, feelings) Social-Cultural – entails the view that personality is influenced by social and cultural contexts Adjustment – pertains to how we cope, adapt, and adjust to various forms of change and events *within domains are theories* Chapter 2 Self-Report Data (S-data) Structured – responses are set, dichotomous (forced choice) and likert-ratings (1-5 scale), pros: standardization, use of stats, cons: limits response, possible limited accuracy Unstructured – responses are not set, open-ended questions, pros: detailed, no limits, cons: not standardized, cannot use routine stats Event Sampling – self-report occurs over time to asses variables that might change in „real time‟ (ecological momentary assessment, i.e. personal digital assistant recorders) Key Findings -self-injury thoughts more frequent and intense vs. suicidal thoughts -self-injury occurs when youth are alone, used to escape negative feelings/thoughts -suicidal thoughts occurred more with sadness than self-injury thoughts -self-injury and suicide have differences in antecedents and features – useful to target treatment -self-injury is more often driven by negative thinking – part of personality Observer Data (O-data) -gathering data from other people, pros: access to unique data and multiple informants, cons: objectivity and respondents may not be able to infer internal processes Naturalistic Setting – observations occur in natural/real life setting Artificial Setting – setting created to resemble real life setting Test Data (T-data) -utilizes standardized testing situations to determine aspects of personality and takes various forms: Mechanical Recoding, Physiological Data, and Projective Tests Limitations: participants may “guess” trait being assessed and create impression, participants and researchers may view testing situation differently, researcher may influence participant Reliability -data reflects true level of what is being measured Test-retest: scores of a measure correlate on repeated measures Internal Consistency: items on 1 measure correlate with each other Inter-rater: rating of 1 observer correlate with those of another Responses that affect reliability – acquiescence, extreme responding, social desirability Validity -degree to which a test measures what it claims to measure Face: whether it appears to measure what it is supposed to Predictive (Criterion): whether the test predicts criteria it is supposed to Convergent: whether the test correlates with other, similar tests Discriminant: refers to what the measure should not correlate with Construct: includes all types of validity – broader in scope Generalizability: whether a measure retains validity over different contexts/samples Experimental Methods -used to determine causality -independent variable is manipulated to affect dependent variable -participants are equivalent (via random assignment) Correlational Studies -used to understand if 2 or more variable share a relation Correlation Coefficient: indicates the direction and degree of relation, range -1 to +1 Limitations: directionality (no causation), third variables Chapter 3 Trait – characteristic describing how people differ or are similar, refers to an average tendency, and is relatively enduring Act Frequency Research Program 1. act nomination 2. prototypically judgment 3. recording of act performance pros: identifies acts relating to most traits, identifies behavioral regularities, helps study meaning of hard to study traits cons: no account for amount of context, applies to only overt acts, may be difficult with complex traits, atheoretical How we identify traits Lexical – all key individual differences are encoded within our language over time, traits are important in communication, criteria for identifying traits: synonym frequency and cross-cultural universality pros: helps initially identify key differences, considers culture cons: some traits are ambiguous, may not capture various types of speech Statistical – identifies groups that co-vary, reduces traits into groups, Theoretical – determines important individual differences (traits) Eysenck‟s Hierarchical Model Psychoticism: aggressive, cold, impulsive, vs. not Extraversion-Introversion: sociable, lively, adventurous vs. not Neuroticism-Emotional Stability: shy, moody, low self-esteem vs. not Cattell‟s 16-Factor Taxonomy -identify and measured key personality traits across various types of data through factor analysis -criticisms: rarely replicated, smaller numbers of traits capture key individual differences Wiggins Circumplex Model -highlighted interpersonal traits that defined social exchange: status (assured-dominant vs. unassured-submissive) and love (warm-agreeable vs. cold-hearted) pros: explicit definition for “interpersonal behavior”, specified types of relationships between traits: Adjacency, bipolarity, orthogonality cons: interpersonal relationships limited to 2 dimensions The Big Five Openness to Experience (aka, intellect/imaginative): creative, imaginative, intellectual vs. uncreative, unimaginative, non-intellectual Conscientiousness: organized, neat, practical, prompt vs. disorganized, careless, sloppy, impractical Extraversion (aka, surgency): talkative, assertive, extraverted, forward vs. shy, introverted, quiet, bashful Agreeableness: sympathetic, kind, warm, understanding, sincere vs. unsympathetic, unkind, cruel Neuroticism (aka, emotional stability): moody, anxious, insecure vs. calm, relaxed, stable pros: factors have facets (sub-traits), strong empirical support, supported across cultures, languages, and samples, wide spread applications cons: research points to other factors, debate over 5 factor, atheocratical, may miss underlying psychological processes Measuring The Big Five – NEO-PI-R -Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory – Revised -scale: SD D N A SA – strongly disagree to strongly agree -study findings: students who wait until end of term to participate were less conscientious & possibly more open to experience vs. those taking part earlier in term Big Five Key Findings -High Conscientiousness & Emotional Stability  good grades -High Neuroticism & Low Conscientiousness  problem gambling -High Agreeableness & Extraversion  volunteering -High Agreeableness & Emotional Stability  forgiveness Neuroticism as a factor in Anxiety and Depression Findings: -higher neuroticism in depression/anxiety vs. no diagnosis -no differences between depressions versus anxiety -highest levels of neuroticism among those with both disorders -high neuroticism may be critical to understanding risk for depression & anxiety – especially when they co-occur Chapter 4 Theoretical Issues – meaningful individual differences, stability over time, consistency across situations Rank Order – with a change in a given trait, a relative difference remains between individuals Person-Situation Interactions Strong Situation: almost all people react similarly Situational Specificity: specific reaction to specific situation Selection: our personalities play a role in what we participate in Evocation: how we react will evoke certain reactions from other people Manipulation: not always a bad thing Measurement Issues Carelessness: detected via – infrequency scales and duplicate questionnaires i.e. scientific questions that people have to answer a certain way and duplicate questions that should get the same answer Faking on Questionaries: false negatives and false positives Barnum Statements: pertain to test interpretation, generalities that apply to anyone Measures in Business Settings MBTI -most widely used measure (used to select for leadership positions) -measures types of personality: introverted OR extraverted, sensing OR intuitive, thinking OR feeling, judging OR perceiving -cons: most people hover around the mean, not many are introverted OR extroverted so this test is extreme, says traits are “types” and assumes homogeneity within “types”, cut-off scores make test-retest reliability difficult -correlated with The Big 5 Traits HBI -rooted in Big 5, strong reliability and predictive validity -assesses things related to a business setting through true-false items: a) Acceptance (respect/approval) b) Status & control of resources c) Predictability *these are all key to successful group work in business settings Chapter 5 Key parts of Personality Development Stability – rank order, mean level stability (of entire population stays the same), personality coherence Change – internal, enduring (must last) Analyzing Stability and Change -population: meaningful change or aspect of stability in change in entire population (sensation seeking) -group differences: did one group change and another stay stable? -individual differences Stability in Infancy: Temperament -early differences involved in behaviors re: emotionality/arousability -more stability over shorter intervals, stability increases with maturity Stability in Childhood: Activity Level -Block & Block Longitudinal Study – assessed activity level through actometer (T-data) & teacher ratings (O-data) -results from both measures were positively correlated (validity) -results from same measure but at different times correlated (stability) -activity was relatively stable with more stability over shorter intervals -different raters identified same youth as bullies, at 24, 65% of bullies had felony convictions Stability in Adulthood: Big 5 -big 5 show relative stability in adulthood, especially > 50 years -but openness, extraversion, neuroticism decline slightly until 50 years Change in Adolescence: Self-esteem -mal
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