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Personality Lecture notes midterm 2

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PSYC 2740
Anneke Olthof

Personality Lecture notes midterm 2 Chapter 9 The Basis of Psychoanalytic Theory Psychic Energy – source of energy that fuels motivation -instincts provide energy: libido (life) and thanatos (death) Unconscious motivation and the mind -conscious -pre-conscious -un-conscious The “Id” –primitive and dominant in infancy, drives all urges -pleasure principle -primary process principle -wish fulfillment Ego –constrains “id” within reality, develops around 2-3 years of age -reality principle -secondary process thinking Super-Ego –internalizes values, morals (around age 5), the conscience -not necessarily reality-based -people can set their own standards Dynamics in Personality Objective Anxiety –real treat Neurotic Anxiety –id-ego conflict Moral Anxiety –ego-super ego conflict *here function of ego is to minimize anxiety and cope with threats via defense mechanisms Defense Mechanisms Repression –preventing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, urges from reaching conscious awareness Denial –insisting that things are not as they seem by refusing to see facts Displacement –a threatening/unacceptable impulse is directed from source to non- threatening target Rationalization –generating acceptable reasons for outcomes that otherwise appear socially unacceptable Reaction Formation –to reduce an urge, one may show an opposite reaction Projection –project own unacceptable desires, urges and/or qualities onto other (related to false consensus effect) Sublimation –channeling unacceptable instincts into a socially desirable activity Psychosexual Stages of Development oral analphalliclatencygenital *fixation occurs when a conflict is unresolved at a stage Oral -0-18 months -mouth is the main source of pleasure -id wants pleasure and gratification -key conflict: weaning Anal -18-3 years -main source of pleasure comes from expelling or retaining feces -conflicts here arise around self-control Phallic -3-5 years -child discovers he has a penis (or, she does not) -sexual desire toward opposite-sex parent -oedipal conflict -Electra complex Latency -6years-puberty -little psychological development -focus on learning skills/abilities for future success -no sexual conflict here Genital –puberty-adult -libido focuses on genitals -no conflicts here -personality is shaped by the way previous conflicts were resolved *occurs at a human nature level personality is determined by: conflict resolutions, the balance of pleasure vs. demands, people’s defense mechanisms, and the stages reached Psychoanalysis -a form of psychotherapy used to help restructure personality by making the unconscious conscious st -1 goal: identify unconscious thoughts/feelings -2nd goal: once patient is aware of this material, help them deal with it maturely/realistically Techniques for revealing the unconscious Free association –patients relax and say what is on their mind (unfiltered content) Dream analysis –dream interpretation (content and meaning) -manifest content: actual content -latent content: what content means Projective techniques –pictures The process of psychoanalysis -following the previous techniques  interpretation(s) (by psychoanalyst) leads to insight (by patient) –cognitive understanding of one’s problems and corresponding intense emotional experience -as progress is made toward insight there might be…. Resistance –patient sets up unconscious obstacles that work against progress Transference –reaction (displacement) toward therapist as if therapist were someone in patient’s life Impact of Freud’s Contributions -led to “talk therapy” and more modern forms of psychological treatment -his works guided many research questions in psychology -among few to develop a theory at the human nature level Chapter 10 False Memories –memories that have been “implanted” (for events that DID NOT occur) -important to identify the processes that can lead to a false memory Factors that lead to false memories -popular press and media -behavior of some therapists –hypnosis, imagination inflation effect, confirmatory bias Contemporary views on the unconscious -motivated unconscious (Freud’s view) vs. cognitive unconscious (unconscious operates like consciousness) Ego Psych -comprises the view that the ego deserved more attention -ego has key role in: mastering environment, achieving goals, establishing identities Erikson’s 8 Stages of Development Infancy, mistrust vs. trust -key q: does the child find caregivers to be reliable? Toddlerhood, shame and doubt vs. autonomy -2 yrs -key q: how much of the world can a child control Young childhood, guilt vs. initiative -3 years -key q: does the child initiate tasks and goals? Elementary school, inferiority vs. industry -key q: does the child feel good at what he/she does? Adolescence, role confusion vs. identity -key q: who am I? do others know me? Young adult, isolation vs. intimacy -key q: who will I love? Will I settle down? Adulthood, stagnation vs. generarativity -key q: am I satisfied? Have I succeeded? Old age, despair vs. integrity -key q: was it all worth it? *Erikson saw personalities as developing over entire lifespan and underscored role of psychosocial factors vs. psychosexual Feminist View on Psychoanalysis -revised the theory of penis envy  penis = symbol of social power, girls wanted the social power of the culture of that time -this work highlighted culture and how it impacts: fear of success and gender differences Self and Narcissism -inflated self-admiration, often drawing attention to oneself, and keep others focused on oneself -narcissism paradox: seem to have high esteem but doubt worth as a person -negative impact on quality/length of relationships Narcissism and Facebook S-data: higher narcissism correlated with more facebook usage (number of friends, wall posts) O-data: independent raters identified those high in narcissism Object Relations Theory (ORT) Basic Assumptions: -forming relations with others is highly important – esp. parents -others (esp. mother), become internalized in the form of mental objects -fist social attachments form prototypes for future relationships Strange Situation and Attachment Styles Securely Attached –endured the separation; approached stranger; happy when mother returned Avoidant Attached –avoid mother upon return; unfazed when she left; give little attention upon her return Ambivalently Attached –very anxious when separated; very difficult to soothe; ambivalent (unsure) when other returned Adulthood: Relationship Styles Secure –little difficulty with satisfying friendships and relationships; no difficulty with trust Avoidant –difficulty with trust; suspicious of other motives; afraid of committing Ambivalent –uncertainty in relationships; dependent and demanding; needy; high maintenance; need reassurance/attention Research on Relationship Styles Longitudinal Research Secure –can manage separation; seek/get emotional support when needed Avoidant –believe love is rare/limited, fear intimacy, non-supportive to partner Ambivalent –short relationships; easily in/out of love; fear losing relationships; focus on other’s happiness (at expense of self) Relationship Styles and the Big 5 Secure high: extraversion and agreeableness low: neuroticism Avoidant high: neuroticism low: agreeableness, extraversion and conscientiousness Ambivalent high: neuroticism low: agreeableness Chapter 11 Motives – internal states that arouse and direct behavior toward specific goals Needs – states of tension within a person Needs According to Murray’s work Needs associated with -specific desire/intention, emotions, and action tendencies According to Murray: needs structured in a hierarchy and interact with each other -needs are influenced by environmental factors like Press  need-relevant aspects of our environment – alpha press vs. beta press Needs in Murray’s Hierarchy Ambition –achievement, exhibition, order Social Power –aggression, autonomy, blame-avoidance Social Affection –affiliation, nurturance, succorance His Suicide Theory: -unmet needs (to nurture, be loved, achieve, and avoid shame)  psych ache (general psychological and emotional pain that reaches an intolerable intensity  suicide Case Study: Ariel Assessed using a projective technique – Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Big 3 Motives (driven by needs) -achievement, power, intimacy Need for achievement (nAch) -to do better, succeed, and feel competent -those high in nAch prefer: moderate challenges, tasks where they can claim responsibility, tasks where feedback is provided nAch: Sex Differences -woman high in nAch AND who value work and family: higher grades, and success at uni, marry and have families later -for woman more focused on family with high nAch: higher dating investment and focus on appearance, talk about dating more -males vs. females for males, there is less stress/difficulty in childhood (more support/care) nAch: Achievement promotion -intendance training: parental strategies to promote autonomy and independence -standard setting: informing children of what is expected (realistically) and offering support Need for Power (nPow) -desire to have an impact on others -high in nPow levels associate with: more arguments, take larger risks, more assertive/active in groups, more possessions, elected to office more  high interest in control nPow: Sex Differences -men higher in nPow: more unsatisfactory relationships, divorces, cheating in relationships, alcohol abuse, aggression, impulsivity -responsibility training can safeguard against higher impulsivity nPow: Outcomes -power stress: when power is blocked, challenged, or a person doesn’t get own way  high power stress: negative impact on immune system, associated with: high blood pressure, muscle tension, colds/flu Need for Intimacy (nInt) -preference for warm, close, and fulfilling relationships those high in nInt have more: expressiveness about relationships; pleasant emotions with others, initiation of conversations, woman on avg have higher nInt vs. men Humanistic Tradition Emphasizes: -choice in human life -responsibility to create meaningful life -need for growth and to reach one’s own potential -self-actualization: what one is capable of becoming? Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Roger’s Work: Reaching self-actualization Fully Functioning Person: -someone who is on their way to self-actualizing -focus on present, open to experience, trusting of self Basis of Self-actualizing: Positive Regard: innate need to be loved and accepted by caregivers 1. Unconditional positive regard 2. Conditional positive regard  based on conditions of worth 3. Positive self-regard  accepting ourselves for strengths and weaknesses Promoting self-actualizing Anxiety: having an experience that does not fit wit
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