PSYC 2740 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Unconditional Positive Regard, Penis Envy, Thematic Apperception Test

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2740
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Personality Lecture notes midterm 2
Chapter 9
The Basis of Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychic Energy source of energy that fuels motivation
-instincts provide energy: libido (life) and thanatos (death)
Unconscious motivation and the mind
-conscious
-pre-conscious
-un-conscious
The “Id” –primitive and dominant in infancy, drives all urges
-pleasure principle
-primary process principle
-wish fulfillment
Ego –constrains “id” within reality, develops around 2-3 years of age
-reality principle
-secondary process thinking
Super-Ego internalizes values, morals (around age 5), the conscience
-not necessarily reality-based
-people can set their own standards
Dynamics in Personality
Objective Anxiety real treat
Neurotic Anxiety id-ego conflict
Moral Anxiety ego-super ego conflict
*here function of ego is to minimize anxiety and cope with threats via defense
mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms
Repression preventing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, urges from reaching
conscious awareness
Denial insisting that things are not as they seem by refusing to see facts
Displacement a threatening/unacceptable impulse is directed from source to non-
threatening target
Rationalization generating acceptable reasons for outcomes that otherwise appear
socially unacceptable
Reaction Formation to reduce an urge, one may show an opposite reaction
Projection project own unacceptable desires, urges and/or qualities onto other (related
to false consensus effect)
Sublimation channeling unacceptable instincts into a socially desirable activity
Psychosexual Stages of Development
oral analphalliclatencygenital
*fixation occurs when a conflict is unresolved at a stage
Oral -0-18 months
-mouth is the main source of pleasure
-id wants pleasure and gratification
-key conflict: weaning
Anal -18-3 years
-main source of pleasure comes from expelling or retaining feces
-conflicts here arise around self-control
Phallic -3-5 years
-child discovers he has a penis (or, she does not)
-sexual desire toward opposite-sex parent
-oedipal conflict
-Electra complex
Latency -6years-puberty
-little psychological development
-focus on learning skills/abilities for future success
-no sexual conflict here
Genital puberty-adult
-libido focuses on genitals
-no conflicts here
-personality is shaped by the way previous conflicts were resolved
*occurs at a human nature level
personality is determined by: conflict resolutions, the balance of pleasure vs. demands,
people’s defense mechanisms, and the stages reached
Psychoanalysis
-a form of psychotherapy used to help restructure personality by making the
unconscious conscious
-1st goal: identify unconscious thoughts/feelings
-2nd goal: once patient is aware of this material, help them deal with it
maturely/realistically
Techniques for revealing the unconscious
Free association patients relax and say what is on their mind (unfiltered content)
Dream analysis dream interpretation (content and meaning)
-manifest content: actual content
-latent content: what content means
Projective techniques pictures
The process of psychoanalysis
-following the previous techniques interpretation(s) (by psychoanalyst) leads to
insight (by patient) –cognitive understanding of one’s problems and corresponding
intense emotional experience
-as progress is made toward insight there might be….
Resistance patient sets up unconscious obstacles that work against progress
Transference reaction (displacement) toward therapist as if therapist were someone in
patient’s life
Impact of Freud’s Contributions
-led to “talk therapy” and more modern forms of psychological treatment
-his works guided many research questions in psychology
-among few to develop a theory at the human nature level
Chapter 10
False Memories –memories that have been “implanted” (for events that DID NOT occur)
-important to identify the processes that can lead to a false memory
Factors that lead to false memories
-popular press and media
-behavior of some therapists hypnosis, imagination inflation effect, confirmatory bias
Contemporary views on the unconscious
-motivated unconscious (Freud’s view) vs. cognitive unconscious (unconscious
operates like consciousness)
Ego Psych
-comprises the view that the ego deserved more attention
-ego has key role in: mastering environment, achieving goals, establishing identities
Erikson’s 8 Stages of Development
Infancy, mistrust vs. trust
-key q: does the child find caregivers to be reliable?
Toddlerhood, shame and doubt vs. autonomy
-2 yrs
-key q: how much of the world can a child control
Young childhood, guilt vs. initiative
-3 years
-key q: does the child initiate tasks and goals?
Elementary school, inferiority vs. industry

Document Summary

Psychic energy source of energy that fuels motivation. Instincts provide energy: libido (life) and thanatos (death) The id primitive and dominant in infancy, drives all urges. Ego constrains id within reality, develops around 2-3 years of age. Super-ego internalizes values, morals (around age 5), the conscience. *here function of ego is to minimize anxiety and cope with threats via defense mechanisms. Repression preventing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, urges from reaching conscious awareness. Denial insisting that things are not as they seem by refusing to see facts. Displacement a threatening/unacceptable impulse is directed from source to non- threatening target. Rationalization generating acceptable reasons for outcomes that otherwise appear socially unacceptable. Reaction formation to reduce an urge, one may show an opposite reaction. Projection project own unacceptable desires, urges and/or qualities onto other (related to false consensus effect) Sublimation channeling unacceptable instincts into a socially desirable activity. *fixation occurs when a conflict is unresolved at a stage.