PSYC 2740- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 32 pages long!)

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30 Nov 2017
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PSYC 2740
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Personality January 12th
Defining Personality
Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the
individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her
interactions with, and adaptions to, the environment (including the intrapsychic,
physical, and social environment)
Attributes about individuals, characteristics to describe people
What makes people different from other people
Average tendencies everyone at some point will experience stress, but some
people are more stress prone
They are not categories we can look at these on a continual; we have low
degrees to high degrees of a given trait (e.g., some people are very athletic some
people aren’t)
Defining Personality
Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the
individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her
interactions with, and adaptions to, the environment (including the intrapsychic,
physical, and social environment)
Will interact in different ways to how we think about things how we perceive
things, and as a result of the environment
The process of personality
Mechanisms (i.e., the process of personality)
Inputs: having certain levels of a certain trait
Decision making: on the basis of certain environments individuals may be
exposed to (someone being at a party on a Saturday night)
o Someone who is outgoing may have fun
o While someone who is socially anxious may be overwhelmed
Output: the person who is outgoing may stay at the party, and make friends.
o The socially anxious may stay in a corner or leave early
If I have certain level of a trait, then what may happen next if they’re in a certain
context?
Defining Personality
Inputs Decision Making Outputs
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Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the
individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her
interactions with, and adaptions to, the environment (including the intrapsychic,
physical, and social environment)
External factors (situations, environments, alcohol/drugs) may affect how people
behave
Must happen from within in order for it to constitute with personality
Defining Personality
Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual
that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her
interactions with, and adaptions to, the environment (including the intrapsychic,
physical, and social environment)
Not made up of one trait
Multiple traits of varying degrees
Just because we have different traits, does mean they are all expressed
Some people who are starting university who are outgoing, but also who is
studious and motivated to do well
o Individual may have their trait of outgoing being more emphasized earlier
on in the semester with a weaker workload
o Exam season begins, still outgoing, but need to well in school is going to
take precedence
Other factors may influence which traits are being expressed at one time
Defining Personality
Personality is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual
that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her
interactions with, and adaptions to, the environment (including the intrapsychic,
physical, and social environment)
Look at individual across time, we should see some sibilance of continuity
Doesn’t have to be the same degree across lifetime; but should be relatively
enduring
…Relatively Enduring…
Traits are relatively stable over time
An Example: State vs. Trait Anxiety
State Anxiety: unpleasant emotional arousal in face of threats/dangers
Trait Anxiety: tendency to respond with state anxiety in the anticipation of
threats/dangers
State
Trait
VS
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