CHAPTER 2- PERS ASSES, MEASURE + RESEARCH DESIGN
Sources of personality data
S DATA (ppl not always honest w/ unusual desires. Unconventional sex, and
Self-report (s data) is most common way to assess personality trait even though
honesty is sometimes an issue
access to excess info about past, present and future
twenty statement text: I am…. 20x, researcher must then devise a way to score or
unstructured; open-ended, limitless (but harder to quantify, no stats)
structured; dichotomous, y/n, t/f, limiting, but we can quantify these answers
ACL: Adjective Checklist, which is the easiest form of structured self-reports. Give
a series of adjectives, participants check if that trait applies to them. More complex
structure self-reports involves characterizing them on a 7-point scale called the
Likert Rating Scale, named after the inventor.
a Personality scale (ex: activity level) consists of summing up the scores of
certain individual rating scales (ex: energetic, active, and vigorous)
More common than checklists however, are S data in the form of statements EX
NEO Personality Inventory or California Psychological Inventory (CPI) which
provide statements and person has to rank their degree of agreeability.
Gathering info about a person’s personality by asking their peers/fam about them
Advantages include getting answers that are maybe more honest, and gathering
info from many people rather than just 1. Reliable assessment of personality when
multiple people say same thing; inter-rater reliability
WHO: Strategies to obtain O data include asking professional personality assessors
(ex: UoCali Study) or by simply asking someone they know. Asking someone they
know is good because it gives opportunity to study that person in their natural
environment. The use of multiple observers can help us discover a person’s
multiple social personality. However, intimate observers may have bias for
person ex. A moth who may over look child’s negative qualities.
HOW: naturalistic observation allow researchers to secure the information in
the realistic context of a person’s lift, but at the cost of not being able to control the
events and behavioural samples. Aritificial Setting, ask them to perform certain
task EX ask couple to discuss a topic they disagree on. Watch facial expressions and
how they argue to determine wether or not they will divorce.
** Not one method suited for all assessment purposes, it depends on what we’re
T DATA (test data)
standardized testing situation to see if different people react differently to
identical situation EX: Megargee’s Dominance study found that 75% of high dominant men and 70%
of hd women assume leadership roles in same-sex partnership. But when woman is
hd and man isn’t, only 20% assume leadership.
Mechanical Recording Devices (part of t-data)
actometer; watch strapped to arms or legs of typically children, to measure
activity level, hyperactivity, etc.
California Q-Sort; instrument designed to produce a wide-ranging description of
children’s personality characteristics (teacher’s way to collect o-data)