PSYC 2740- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 68 pages long!)

139 views68 pages
29 Mar 2018
Department
Course
Professor
U of G
PSYC 2740
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 68 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 68 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Lecture 1 and Chapter 1 Intro to Personality psychology
Defining Personality: The set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the
individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her
interactions with and adaptations to, the environment (including intrapsychic,
physical and social environment)
The set of psychological traits
- Traits: ways we use to describe how people are similar or different to one
another
o Not necessarily how someone is ALL the time, it’s the AVERAGE
tendency
o Not categories (introvert, extrovert), its about continual
o Ex. if someone is described as sociable, doesn’t mean they are sociable
ALL the time
o Traits can have moderate stability overtime ex. If someone is shy at a
young age, they may still stay shy as they age
o Traits can be developed with how we are raised, attachment to
caregivers
- Trait descriptive adjectives: adjectives that can be used to describe traits,
attributes of a person that are reasonably characteristic of the person and
enduring over time
- Research on personality traits asks 4 kinds of questions
o How many fundamental traits are there? Dozens or hundreds or a
few?
o How are the traits organized? Ex. how is talkativeness related to other
traits such as impulsivity and extraversion?
o What are the origins of traits? Like where they come from and how
they develop? Does heredity influence talkativeness? What sort of
cultural or child-rearing practices affect talkativeness?
o What are the correlations and consequences of traits in terms of
experience, behaviour and life outcomes? Do talkative people have
many friends? Do they have an extended social network to draw upon
in times of trouble? Do they annoy people that are trying to study?
- Psychological traits are useful for 3 reasons
o They help describe people and help understand the dimensions of
usefulness among people
o Traits are useful because they help explain behaviour
o Traits can predict future behaviour: ex. careers individuals will find
satisfying, who will tolerate stress better and who is likely to get along
with others
o Thus, personality is useful in describing, explaining and predicting
differences among individuals
And Mechanisms…
- mechanisms is a process of personality and how it may reel different
outcomes and actions
- most psychological mechanisms have an information-processing activity
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 68 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
- Inputs, decision rules and outputs
o Input: a psychological mechanism may make people sensitive to
certain kinds of information from the environment, circumstances and
situations
o Decision rules: may make them more likely to think about specific
options, by product of the trait itself
o Output: may guide their behaviour towards certain categories of
action, what happens because of those decisions
o Ex. we have 2 very different people, one social and one shy and both
invited to a house part (input), so the input is the same but their
decision making will be difference (one will be too shy to talk to
people and the other will be very social and energetic, drinking) and
hence output will be different (one may end up going home and the
other may end up getting very drunk)
o Ex. Input = danger, decision rule = 1. If courageous then face danger 2.
If cowardly, then run away from danger, output = 1. Confront source
of danger 2. Run away from source of danger
- All traits and mechanisms are not always activated, only a few activated at a
time
o Ex. the trait of courageousness will only show in an individual when
put in a certain situation, or else you cannot look at a person and
determine if they are courageous or not
Within the individual…
- Personality is something a person carries with them overtime form one
situation to the next
- We carry the same personalities with us from situation to situation
- We are the same people we were last week, last month, last year and we
continue to carry them in the coming years
- Important sources of personality reside within the individual and remain
stable overtime and somewhat consistent
That are organized and relatively enduring…
- Traits and mechanisms are not random, they are connected to each other in a
coherent fashion
- Traits are also ENDURING overtime, especially in adulthood and consistent in
situations
- Ex. saying someone is angry is not saying anything about a trait, anger is
more of STATE than a trait
o saying someone is anger prone means someone is frequently so its a
trait
And that influence…
- Emphasis on influential forces means that personality traits and mechanisms
can have an effect on peoples lives
- Personality influences how we act, how we view ourselves, how we think
about others, how we interact with others, how we feel, how we select our
environments (esp. social environments), what goals and desires we pursue
in life and how we react to out circumstances
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 68 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.