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PSYC 2740- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 26 pages long!)

26 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

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[PSYC 2740] Comprehensive spring guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at Personality - The set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the intrapsychic, physical, and social environments. Psychological traits - The characteristics that describe ways in which people are different from each other • Traits also define ways in which people are similar to some others/how they are different (shy vs. outgoing) • Average tendencies - a talkative person will start more conversations than a non-talkative person o Not talking about categories, but talking about a continuum - low degrees of a given trait & high degrees of a given trait • Traits help describe people, they help explain behaviour, help predict the future • Personality is useful in describing, explaining, and predicting differences among individuals Psychological mechanisms - Like traits, except the term mechanisms refers more to processes or personality o Inputs, decision rules, and outputs Within the individual means that personality is something a person carries within him- or herself over time and from one situation to the next (we carry the same personality from situation to situation throughout our lives) Somewhat stable, and somewhat consistent over situations (relative stability) • Organized - The psychological traits and mechanisms for a given persona re not simply a random collection of elements (personality is organized because the mechanisms and traits are linked to one another in a coherent fashion) • Food vs. intimacy - if you are hungry, desire for food is greater than desire for intimacy and vice versa Enduring - Psychological traits are relatively enduring over time, particularly in adulthood, and are somewhat consistent over situations • Angry at the time does not equal anger as a trait, it is a state • Anger prone however is a trait • Example: o State anxiety: Unpleasant emotional arousal in face of threats/danger o Trait anxiety: Tendency to respond with state anxiety in the anticipation of threats/danger Influential forces - Personality traits and mechanisms can have an effect on people's lives • Personality influences how we acts, view ourselves, think about the world, interact w/ others, how we feel, select our environments, goals and desires, and how we react to circumstances. Person-environment interaction - Complex • Perceptions, selection, evocations, and manipulations o Perceptions - how we 'see' or interpret, an environment o Selection- the manner in which we choose situations to enter (friends, hobbies, university, career) • Reflection of our personality o Evocations - reactions we produce in others, often unintentionally (i.e., someone who is physically large may evoke feeling of intimidation in others) o Manipulations - ways in which we intentionally attempt to influence others Adaptations - A central feature of personality concerns adaptive functioning (goals, coping, adjusting) Environment - Poses a challenge for people often Direct threats to survival (food shortages, heights, spiders) • • Social environment - many people competing for the same high prestige job • Intrapsychic environment (in the mind) - private experiences, dreams, desires, fantasies o Affects self-esteem Three Levels of Personality Analysis 1. Like all others (the human nature level); o Human nature - the traits and mechanisms of personality that are typical of our species and are possessed by everyone or nearly everyone o I.e., spoken language FISSURE - most contemporary research occurs in the levels below 2. Like some others (the level of individual and group differences); and o Individual differences - ways in which a person is like some other people (extraverts, attention seekers) find more resources at
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