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Study Guide

PSYC 2740- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 26 pages long!)
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26 Pages
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Spring 2018

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2740
Professor
Stephen Lewis
Study Guide
Final

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U of G
PSYC 2740
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Personality - The set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively
enduring and that influence his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the intrapsychic, physical, and social
environments.
Psychological traits - The characteristics that describe ways in which people are different from each other
Traits also define ways in which people are similar to some others/how they are different (shy vs. outgoing)
Average tendencies - a talkative person will start more conversations than a non-talkative person
o Not talking about categories, but talking about a continuum - low degrees of a given trait & high
degrees of a given trait
Traits help describe people, they help explain behaviour, help predict the future
Personality is useful in describing, explaining, and predicting differences among individuals
Psychological mechanisms - Like traits, except the term mechanisms refers more to processes or personality
o Inputs, decision rules, and outputs
Within the individual means that personality is something a person carries within him- or herself over time and
from one situation to the next (we carry the same personality from situation to situation throughout our lives)
Somewhat stable, and somewhat consistent over situations (relative stability)
Organized - The psychological traits and mechanisms for a given persona re not simply a random collection of
elements (personality is organized because the mechanisms and traits are linked to one another in a coherent
fashion)
Food vs. intimacy - if you are hungry, desire for food is greater than desire for intimacy and vice versa
Enduring - Psychological traits are relatively enduring over time, particularly in adulthood, and are somewhat
consistent over situations
Angry at the time does not equal anger as a trait, it is a state
Anger prone however is a trait
Example:
o State anxiety: Unpleasant emotional arousal in face of threats/danger
o Trait anxiety: Tendency to respond with state anxiety in the anticipation of threats/danger
Influential forces - Personality traits and mechanisms can have an effect on people's lives
Personality influences how we acts, view ourselves, think about the world, interact w/ others, how we feel,
select our environments, goals and desires, and how we react to circumstances.
Person-environment interaction - Complex
Perceptions, selection, evocations, and manipulations
o Perceptions - how we 'see' or interpret, an environment
o Selection - the manner in which we choose situations to enter (friends, hobbies, university, career)
Reflection of our personality
o Evocations - reactions we produce in others, often unintentionally (i.e., someone who is physically
large may evoke feeling of intimidation in others)
o Manipulations - ways in which we intentionally attempt to influence others
Adaptations - A central feature of personality concerns adaptive functioning (goals, coping, adjusting)
Environment - Poses a challenge for people often
Direct threats to survival (food shortages, heights, spiders)
Social environment - many people competing for the same high prestige job
Intrapsychic environment (in the mind) - private experiences, dreams, desires, fantasies
o Affects self-esteem
Three Levels of Personality Analysis
1. Like all others (the human nature level);
o Human nature - the traits and mechanisms of personality that are typical of our species and are
possessed by everyone or nearly everyone
o I.e., spoken language
FISSURE - most contemporary research occurs in the levels below
2. Like some others (the level of individual and group differences); and
o Individual differences - ways in which a person is like some other people (extraverts, attention seekers)
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3. Like no others (the individual uniqueness level
o People in one group may have personality features in common, and these common features make that
group of people different from another group of people (cultures, age groups, socioeconomic status)
Nomothetic - Research that involves statistical comparisons of individuals or groups, requiring samples of subjects
on which to conduct research. Typically applied to identify universal human characteristics and dimensions of
individual or group differences - tends to use statistical methods
Idiographic - Research focuses on a single subject, trying to observe general principles that are manifest in a single
life over time - more qualitative
Grand Theories of Personality
Address the human nature level of analysis
Attempt to provide a universal account of the fundamental psychological processes and characteristics of our
species
Freud - universal instinct of sex and aggression; universal structure of the id, ego, and superego; and universal
stages of psychosexual development
Contemporary Research in Personality
Addresses the ways in which individuals and groups differ
Extraversion vs. introversion
6 Domains
Dispositional domain - deals centrally with the ways in which individuals differ from one another
Cuts across all other domains
Goal is to identify and measure the most important ways in which individuals differ from one another
Biological domain - Humans are, first and foremost, collections of biological systems, and these systems provide
the building blocks for behaviour, thought, and emotion - we are the foundation for personality
Genetics, psychophysiology, evolution
Intrapsychic domain - deals with mental mechanisms of personality, many of which operate outside of conscious
awareness
Psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud
Cognitive-Experiential domain - Focuses on cognition and subjective experience, such as conscious thoughts,
feelings, beliefs, and desires about oneself and others
Self and self-concept
Goals we strive for
Emotions
Social and Cultural domain - Personality is not something that resides within heads, nervous systems, and genes of
individuals. Personality affects and is affected by social and cultural context
Adjustment domain - The fact that personality plays a key role in how we cope, adapt, and adjust to the ebb and
flow of events in our ay-to-day lives
The Role of Personality Theory
A good theory fulfills:
1. Provides a guide for researchers; - directs them to important questions
2. Organizes known findings; and
3. Makes predictions
Belief - personally useful and crucially important to some people, but they are based on faith, not on reliable facts
and systematic observations
Theory - Tested by systematic observations that can be repeated by others and that yield similar conclusions
Standards for Evaluating Personality Theories
Comprehensiveness
o Does the theory do a good job of explaining all of the facts and observations within its domain?
Heuristic value
o Does the theory provide a guide to important new discoveries about personality that were not known
before?
Testability
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Description
[PSYC 2740] Comprehensive spring guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at oneclass.com Personality - The set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the intrapsychic, physical, and social environments. Psychological traits - The characteristics that describe ways in which people are different from each other • Traits also define ways in which people are similar to some others/how they are different (shy vs. outgoing) • Average tendencies - a talkative person will start more conversations than a non-talkative person o Not talking about categories, but talking about a continuum - low degrees of a given trait & high degrees of a given trait • Traits help describe people, they help explain behaviour, help predict the future • Personality is useful in describing, explaining, and predicting differences among individuals Psychological mechanisms - Like traits, except the term mechanisms refers more to processes or personality o Inputs, decision rules, and outputs Within the individual means that personality is something a person carries within him- or herself over time and from one situation to the next (we carry the same personality from situation to situation throughout our lives) Somewhat stable, and somewhat consistent over situations (relative stability) • Organized - The psychological traits and mechanisms for a given persona re not simply a random collection of elements (personality is organized because the mechanisms and traits are linked to one another in a coherent fashion) • Food vs. intimacy - if you are hungry, desire for food is greater than desire for intimacy and vice versa Enduring - Psychological traits are relatively enduring over time, particularly in adulthood, and are somewhat consistent over situations • Angry at the time does not equal anger as a trait, it is a state • Anger prone however is a trait • Example: o State anxiety: Unpleasant emotional arousal in face of threats/danger o Trait anxiety: Tendency to respond with state anxiety in the anticipation of threats/danger Influential forces - Personality traits and mechanisms can have an effect on people's lives • Personality influences how we acts, view ourselves, think about the world, interact w/ others, how we feel, select our environments, goals and desires, and how we react to circumstances. Person-environment interaction - Complex • Perceptions, selection, evocations, and manipulations o Perceptions - how we 'see' or interpret, an environment o Selection- the manner in which we choose situations to enter (friends, hobbies, university, career) • Reflection of our personality o Evocations - reactions we produce in others, often unintentionally (i.e., someone who is physically large may evoke feeling of intimidation in others) o Manipulations - ways in which we intentionally attempt to influence others Adaptations - A central feature of personality concerns adaptive functioning (goals, coping, adjusting) Environment - Poses a challenge for people often Direct threats to survival (food shortages, heights, spiders) • • Social environment - many people competing for the same high prestige job • Intrapsychic environment (in the mind) - private experiences, dreams, desires, fantasies o Affects self-esteem Three Levels of Personality Analysis 1. Like all others (the human nature level); o Human nature - the traits and mechanisms of personality that are typical of our species and are possessed by everyone or nearly everyone o I.e., spoken language FISSURE - most contemporary research occurs in the levels below 2. Like some others (the level of individual and group differences); and o Individual differences - ways in which a person is like some other people (extraverts, attention seekers) find more resources at oneclass.com
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