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Final

PSYC 2740 Study Guide - Final Guide: Assortative Mating, Shyness, Silent Treatment

14 pages112 viewsFall 2013

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2740
Professor
Stephen Lewis
Study Guide
Final

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Personality Exam notes
Chapter 14: Approaches to self
Self-concept you understand of yourself
Self-esteem how you feel about who you are
Social identity how you present yourself to others
- sometimes it does not match our self-concept
Development of self-concept:
Begins when child makes distinction between its own body and everything else
self-recognition occurs around 18 months of age-average
Social comparison an evaluation of oneself or one’s performance in terms of a comparison with a
reference group
- Better or worse than others?
Private self-concept hidden side to the self, private attributes, thoughts, feelings, desires
e.g. children develop imaginary friends when this develops
Perspective taking ability to take the perspectives of others or to see oneself as others do step
outside oneself and imagine how one appears to others
- develops during teens, can lead to extreme self-consciousness
Objective self-awareness seeing yourself as an object of others attention
- often experienced as shyness, can be a chronic problem
Self-schemata Part of our self-concept: possible selves, ought selves, and undesired selves
Self-schema specific knowledge structure or cognitive representation of the self-concept
- networks of associated building blocks of self-concept
Example: schema of what it means to be masculine includes: assertiveness, strength,
independence it applies this understanding to the self
Possible selves the many ideas people have about who they might become, who they hope to become
or who they fear they will become
Ideal self what persons, themselves, want to be our own goals (promotion focused)
Ought self persons understanding of what others what them to be
- Responsibilities + commitments to others Prevention focus (avoid harm, seek safety)
Self-guides standards that one uses to organize info and motivate appropriate behaviour
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Evaluation of oneself
- People can evaluate themselves positively/negatively in different areas of their lives
- High self-esteem in one area = high self-esteem in most areas
Research on self esteem
Reactions to criticism and failure feedback
- how people with high/low self-esteem react to failure/criticism
Findings: following failure low self-esteem persons likely to perform poorly/give up earlier on tasks
(they accept failure)
Following failure high self-esteem persons are spurred into action on subsequent tasks less likely to
give up
Self-esteem and coping with negative events
- strategies people use to get through life
Following failure on one area of life: HSE person focuses on other areas of life that are well, LSE person
accepts failure at most things in life
Self-complexity each person has many roles + many aspects to our self-concepts some people have
simple self-concept in a few large categories
HSE: more complex self-concept
LSE: simpler self-concept
failure becomes more devastating
Protecting vs. enhancing self
LSE people = protect self-concept by avoiding failure more than to enhance self-concept with success
Defensive pessimism strategy in which a person facing a challenge expects to do poorly because the
impact of the failure can be lessened if it is expected in advance
Self-handicapping a person deliberately does the things that increase probability he/she will fail
- you have an exam that you’re pessimistic about so you get drunk the night before and use the hangover
as an excuse for failing so your intelligence or ability is not to blame
Self-esteem variability individual difference characteristics that determine the magnitude of
fluctuations in self-esteem
1. Distinction between level and variability of self-esteem (not related to each other)
2. Self-esteem variability is related to the extent to which one’s self-evaluation is changeable by events of
life more than others self esteem
High variability in self-esteem can be caused because people may:
- have enhanced sensitivity to social evaluation events
- increased concern about self-view
- overview on social sources of evaluation
- react to evaluation with anger/hostility
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Social component of self: Social identity
- how you are presented to others
- identity has element of continuity, example: gender or ethnicity are constant
Nature of identity
Continuity people can count on you to be the same person tomorrow as you are today
- people do change in various ways but important aspects remain stable
- other aspects change gradually: education, marital status etc.
Contrast your social identity differentiates you from other people
- combination of characteristics = unique identity
Identity development:
- people have some latitude to choose what they want to be known for
- struggle for identity during late adolescence
Identity crisis feelings of anxiety that accompany efforts to define or redefine one’s own individuality
and social reputation
2 different kinds:
Identity deficit when a person has not formed an adequate identity and has trouble making major
decisions
- often occurs when a person discards old values/goals
- vulnerable to influences by other people
Identity conflict incompatibility between two or more aspects of identity
- person is forced to make important/difficult life decision
- person wants to reach 2 mutually contradictory goals
e.g. promotion at work (longer hours, more work, more money) vs. wanting to spend more
time with family
Resolution of identity crisis
- Commonly occurs in adolescence
1. Decide which values are most important
2. Transform abstract values into desire + actual behaviours
e.g. 1. Important to have family
2. Find right spouse who wants a family
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