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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Not on the Exam Chapter 7 1. A closer look Phineas gage/the green study, 2. table 7.3/7.4 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 1. Intro case 2. Closer look false mem 3. Closer look abuse Chapter 11 1. Table 11.1 – Murray’s Needs 2. A Closer Look (TAT and Measures of Motives) 3. Section on War & Peace & Power (in need for Power section) 4. Table 11.3 Chapter 12 1. Diallo case at start of chapter 2. Section on Dweck and the Theory of Mastery Orientation, 3. Section on E. Tory Higgins & Theory of Regulatory Forces, 4. and then the Section on Walter Mischel & the Cognitive-Affective Personality System Chapter 13 Lecture 7: Physiological approaches to personality Physiological systems: organ systems within the body Theoretical bridge: connections between environmental conditions/personality traits/responses build theoretical bridge linking personality to specific situations in terms of evoking a certain psych response which can be identified/measured using specific physio traits Common physio measures: most use electrodes, Electrodermal activity, cardiovascular, activity, brain activity Electrodes: sensore usually placed on skin surface/linked to polygraph to measure physio variables, telemetry Telemetry: electrical signals sent from electrodes to polygraph using radio waves instead of wires Electrodermal activity: aka skin conductance, gives measure of sympathetic nervous system activates, electricity flows across skin with less resistance if skin sweats/sweating on hands is activated by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) so electrodes measure that Sympathetic nervous system: reacts in times of stress as fight or flight response, physio response when anxious or stressed Skin conductance/self-injury: Nock/Mendes 2008, role of stress/emotion/people trying to self-injure, self-injury commonly used to cope/alleviate different negative emotions, how often/intensely and how you react to different negative emotions based on who you are/personality, this response should be elevated under stress, induced stress in 2 groups/measured skin conductance, Measuring: group split by weather they had history of self-injury or not, every participant got same feedback on matching game, wanted to see how long people stay in game/tolerate distress of negative feedback, Findings: self-injury group had much more skin conductance/elevated emotional reactivity to stress/they quite game sooner which may indicate lower distress tolerance, Implications: emotional reactivity/distress may be key to understanding self-injury Cardiovascular activity: measures blood pressure (BP) or heart rate, people react differently in different context based on cardiovascular activity, common measure of stress response, physio systems reacts alongside psych stress, cardiac reactivity Blood pressure: pressure exerted by blood in artery walls, people with higher trait anxiety/neuroticism likely to have high BP in times of stress Heart rate: expressed in beats per minute (BPM), good indicator of stress/anxiety/cognitive effect, higher cognitive effort=higher BPM, Cardiac reactivity: increase in BP/MPM in times of stress, chronic cardiac reactivity linked with type Apersonality Type A personality: higher risk of heart attack, high levels of competitive achievement motivation, intolerant of waiting, frustrated easily, high levels of hostility unique to them/associated with higher heart rate Brain Activity: Electroencephalogram (EEG), Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) EEG: measures brain activity (electricity) via electrodes to determine areas of brain activity FMRI: shows images of area of brain activity, get a sense of certain brain area that become more active, certain brain areas correspond to different traits or trait like constellations Psychopathy personality: little to no remorse, use people to get what they want, more prone to committing crimes/not reacting to different people/lack of empathy/ cruelty, they have decreased limbic activation viewing violent images Limbic system: regulates emotions/controls impulses,Amygdala is a major part, under dev in psychopaths Neuroticism: correlated with increased frontal brain activation to negative images, more stress prone, Extraversion: correlated with increased frontal brain activation to positive images Biochemical analysis: antibodies, testosterone, cortisol, serotonin/dopamine/MAO Eysenck’s Original theory:Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS), introverts have higher resting levels of cortical arousal because theirARAS let in to much stimulation/they do introverted things because they need to keep their already heightened levels of arousal in check, extraverts are the opposite ARAS: structure in brain stem thought to control overall cortical arousal, in 1960s it was seen as a gateway by which nervous stimulation entered cortex, if gate was somewhat closed resting arousal level was lower/if gate more open then resting arousal level higher, Eysenck’s revised theory: introverts/extraverts don’t have different resting states of arousal, the difference lies in degree of Arousability of their nervous systems Lemon juice test: put drop of lemon juice on tongue, should salivate more if introverted Reinforcement sensitivity theory: Behavioural activation system (BAS), Behavioural inhibition system (BIS), impulsivity, anxiety BAS: responsive to rewards/regulates approach behaviour, active BAS should correspond to impulsivity, take risks/use drugs/more response to rewards, to curve unwanted behaviour reward other desire behaviours instead of punishment BIS: responsive to punishment/uncertainty and motivates inhibition/avoidance, more about avoiding harm or anxiety/stress, more reactive to punishment Impulsivity: high extraversion/moderate neuroticism, more active BAS Anxiety: high Neuroticism/moderate introversion, more active BIS Sensation seeking: tendency to seek out thrills/seek XP/take risks/avoid boredom, came out of sensory deprivation research, supported by optimal level of arousal, Sensory deprivation: often done in sound proof chambers containing water person floats in total darkness so sensory input is at min, Optimal level of arousal theory: people motivated by internal reward to reach their optimal arousal of not too high or low, motivation to avoid sensory deprivation Monoamine Oxidase: aka MAO, regulates neurotransmitters in synapse after action potential by breaking it down, to little MAO leads to too much neurotransmitter/Vice versa, high sensation seekers have low MAO, neurotransmitter seeds up movement of typing Problem gambling/personality: problem gamblers correlated with high sensation seeking/impulsivity, risky behaviour, difficulty stopping/lying to hide from others, sensation seeking linked to neurotransmitters/therefore other neurotransmitters may be involved in personality Neurotransmitter: chem in nerve cells responsible for transmission of nerves impulses from one cell to another, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine Dopamine: associated with pleasure, functions like reward system, hard drugs give lots of dopamine but deplete natural levels creating chem dependency on drug Serotonin: plays role in depression/mood disorders, depression drugs block reuptake of serotonin leaving it in synapse longer leading to decreased depression Norepinephrine: involved in activating SNS fight or flight Cloninger’s tridimensional personality model: 3 personality traits tied to 3 neurotransmitters, noverly seeking Novelty seeking: novelty/thrills/excitement can make up for low levels dopamine so novelty seeking result from low level dopamine neurotransmitter Harm avoidance: people low in serotonin sensitive to unpleasant stimuli/stimuli or events associated with punishment or pain so people low in serotonin expect harmful/unpleasant event will happen to them/they constantly vigilant for signs of such threatening events Reward dependence: associated with low levels of norepinephrine, people high in this trait are persistent/they continue to act in ways that produced reward/they work long hours/put a lot of effort into their work/will often continue arriving after others have given up Morningness-eveningness: bio process fluctuates on 24-25 hour cycle called Circadian rhythms Circadian rhythms: shorter rhythms means hit peaks earlier/highest body temp/most awake earlier/fatigued earlier, longer rhythms are opposite, studied free running, difficult but possible to change over time Free running: person in windowless/clockless room so they have no time cues to influence behaviour or biology Morningness-eveningness/depression: chelminski et al 1988, higher in evening correlated with higher depressive systems, eveningness may help understand bio mechanism responsible for depression, morningness may help understand those that are protective, sleep distribution is a symptom of depression, evening people may feel more isolated as everyone has gone to bed, light treatment for depression particularly SAD Brain asymmetry: hemisphere of brain specialized/involved in specific functions, eeg measures brain active like alpha wave, emotions often measured by activation in frontal brain, this response is stable/affective style is thus considered trait like Alpha way: opposite indication of brain activity Left frontal hemisphere: more active when XP pleasant emotion, some people react more intensely Right frontal hemisphere: more active when XP negative emotions, some people react more to positivity/vice versa Lecture 8: the Intrapsychic domain: Psychoanalytic approaches to personality Psychic energy: Freud, source of energy within each person that motivates the m to do one thing/not another, motivates all human activity, always have same amount of psychic energy throughout lifetime, it can be directed in various ways Instinct: Freud, gives energy to psychic system, originally had self-preservation/sexual instinct but that became life instinct, humans have fundamental instinct to destruction that often manifest in aggression towards others, the 2 instincts were Libido/Thanatos which can work in tandem, Libido: life instinct, seen as sexual but also any need-satisfying/life sustaining/pleasure oriented urge Thanatos: death instinct, any urge to destroy/harm/agrees against self or others Freud’s Brain: Freud thought the brains layered into conscious/pre-conscious/un-conscious, conscious is what’s seen but its smallest/vast majority hidden Conscious: part of the mind holding all thoughts/feelings/images a persons is currently aware of, current thoughts in conscious mind Pre-conscious: any info a person’s not presently aware of but could easily be retrieved/made conscious, found in preconscious mind Unconscious: part of the mind where conscious mind has no awareness, the mem/feelings/thoughts/urges so troubling that being aware of them makes person anxious Psychoanlytic personality theory: how people cope with sex/aggressive instincts in constraints of civ society, Freud thought personality made of Id/Ego/Super Ego Id: primitive/dominant in infancy drives all urges, very basic needs/wants, selfish/impulsive/pleasure loving, driven by pleasure principle/primary process principle Pleasure principle: desire for instant gratification, id works based on it so it has no logic/values/morals/won’t listen to reason/has little patience Primary process principle: no logical conscious thought/reality anchor, ie dreams, has discoverable principles, based on wish fulfilment Wish fulfilment: something unavailable is imagined/the image of it is temp satisfying Ego: constrains id to reality, dev at age 2-3, works based on reality principle, understands urges of id often in conflict with social/psychical reality so must be redirected or postponed with secondary process thinking Reality principle: counterpart to pleasure principle, guides behaviour according to demands of reality/relies on strength on ego to provide such guidance Secondary process thinking: dev/devising strategies for problem solving/getting satisfaction, often involves taking into account constraints of physical reality on when/how to express an urge or desire Superego: aka conscious, dev around age 5, internalizes values/morals/societal ideals, makes us feel guilty/ashamed/embarrassed when we did bad/pride when did good, sets moral goals/ideas of perfection, source of judgements that something is good/bad, not necessarily bound by reality, main tool is guilt Id/Ego/Super ego interaction: their different goals can provoke internal conflicts within an individual leading to anxiety, ego must create balance of id/superego Anxiety: unpleasant high arousal emotional state associated with perceived threat, psychoanalytic says its signal ego is threated by reality or id impulses or harsh superego controls, Freud identified neurotic/moral/objective anxiety, as its unpleasant people try defending against it with defence mechanisms Objective anxiety: in response to real/external threat, ego threatened by external factor Neurotic anxiety: when direct conflict between id/ego, danger is ego may lose control over some unacceptable desire of id Moral anxiety: conflict between id/ego/superego, from over powerful superego constantly challenging person to live up to increasingly higher expectations Defence mechanisms: aka DM, ego strategies to cope with anxiety/threats to self-esteem, repression/denial/displacement/rationalization/reaction formation/projection/ sublimation Repression: process of preventing unacceptable thoughts/feeling/urges from reach conscious awareness, one of Freud’s earliest DM Denial: insisting that things aren’t as they seem by refusing to see facts, keeping XP out of mem, uses fundamental attribution error, seen in daydreaming/fantasizing Fundamental attribution error: when bad events happen to others its attributed to characteristics of their personality, but if it happens to us its attributed to situation Displacement: threatening/unacceptable impulse directed from source to non-threatening target, not consciously done Rationalization: generating acceptable reasons for outcome that otherwise appear socially unacceptable Reaction formation: to reduce urge one may show an opposite reaction Projection: project own unacceptable desire/urges/qualities onto others, related to false consensus effect False consensus effect: tendency many people have to assume others are similar to them Sublimation: channelling unacceptable instinct into socially desirable activities, allows limited expression of id tendencies Everyday DM: with occasional use its not bad/even healthy to be able to cope but to much can be very bad Psychosexual stages of dev: freud, 5 key sexual stages of dev, if stage unresolved person becomes fixated/stays at that stage, individual differences come from how conflict in each stage resolved, kids seek sexual gratification at each stage by investing libido energy in specific body part Oral/Anal/Phallic/Latency/Genital Fixation: Freud, if kid doesn’t resolve conflict of the stage they may get stuck at that stage/may show less mature approach to sex gratification Oral: 0-18 months, they get gratification by putting things in their mouth so its main source of pleasure (MSP), id wants pleasure/gratification, weaning off breast/bottle is key conflict, if fixated here their dependent on others but become more independent if successful Anal: 18 months-3years, anal sphincter is MSP by expelling/retaining shit, toilet training process, if failed they may be sloppier adults lacking self-control or may be “anal” with too much need for control, Phallic: 3-5 years, boy discover they have penis/girls find they don’t, sexual desire to opposite sex parent leads to oedipal conflict/Electra complex Oedipal conflict: main conflict for boys, unconscious desire to have mom to self by eliminating dad but fears dad castrating him leading castration anxiety Castration anxiety: boy fears loosing dick so they decide the best they can do is become their dad as he is closes to mom leading to identification Identification: identifying with dad leads to resolution of oedipal conflict/phallic stage which is start of superego/male gender role Electra complex: main conflict for girls, blame mom for lack of penis/desires dad for his penis which is penis envy but as mom is not feared girls have no good reason to stop desiring dad so it’s unclear how its solved, as phallic resolution leads to super ego Freud though women are morally inferior, very controversial idea Latency: 6 years-puberty, little psych dev, focus on learning skill/abilities for future success in school, no sexual conflict Genital: puberty-adult, libido focused on genitals, no conflict, personality shaped by way 1st 3 conflicts were resolved, focus on relation dev, Psychosexual stages/personality: occurs at human nature level, personality determined by conflict resolution/balance of pleasure V demands/peoples DM/the stages reached, some DM more adaptive than others, most of this happens at unconscious level, unconscious brought to awareness with psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis: form of psychotherapy used to help restructure used to restructure personality by making unconscious conscious, 1st identify unconscious thoughts/ feeling, 2nd once patient is aware of it help them deal with it maturely/realistically, reveal unconscious by free association/dream analysis/projective techniques Free association: patients relax/say whatever comes to mind, often say things that surprise/embarrass them, relaxes censor that screen normal thoughts revealing important info, therapist must be able to notice subtle signs something important was said Dream analysis: Freud book the interpretation of dreams, uncovers unconscious material in dreams by looking at manifest/latent content The interpretation of dream: dreams satisfying urges/fulfill unconscious wishes/desires within protection of sleep Manifest content: actual content, ie falling Latent content: what content means, ie falling means you’re losing control of something in real life Symbols: dream interpreted based on how many unacceptable impulse/urges transformed by unconscious into dream symbols Projective techniques: person shown ambiguous stimulus/is then asked to impose some order on the stimulus such as asking what they see in a inkblot, what’s they see is interpreted to show something about their personality as they presumably project their concerns/conflicts/traits/ways of seeing or dealing with the world House tree person: have person draw a house/tree/person, often done with kids, not assessed by itself, may be useful initial exercise with kids Psychoanalysis process: follow one of the techniques, interpretation, insight, resistance, transference, very slow process/can take years Interpretation: Psychoanalyst offer patients interpretations of the psychodynamic causes of their problems leading to insight Insight: through many interpretations patient gradually led to understanding of unconscious source of their problems, intense emotional XP accompanying release of repressed material Resistance: as patience’s defences are threatened by Psychoanalyst probing patient may unconsciously set up obstacles to progress, ie showing up late/skipping sessions Transference: patient begins reacting to Psychoanalyst as if they were important figure from their own life, may take things out on them as if they were that person, Counter transference: therapist reacts to patient as if they were someone from their life Freud contribution impacts: led to talk therapy/modern forms of psych treatment, his work has been increased into society at large, guided many research questions in psych, among the few to dev a theory at human nature level Lecture 10 PsychoanalyticApproaches to Personality: Contemporary Issues False mem: mem that have been implanted for events that didn’t happen, can occur when asked leading questions, factors False mem Factors: notion is ubiquitous in society, Hypnosis, imagination infiltration effect, confirmatory bias, therapists must be careful in how they conduct self Hypnosis: once thought while in hypnotic state they’re more suggestible/likely to create false mem but they’re instead more influenced by wording of question/remember detail of things that didn’t happen Imagination infiltration effect: mem is elaborated upon in imagination leading person to confuse imagined with real events Confirmatory bias: tendency to only look for evidence that confirms a previous hunch/not to look for evidence that might disconfirm a believe Consequences of false mem: could be falsely accusing people of certain crimes before assuming what someone says is true, must be careful not to accuse someone their story is false in case it actually is as it could be damage psych Motivated unconscious: Freud, info that’s unconscious can motivate or influence subsequent behaviour Cognitive unconscious: content of unconscious mind assumed to operate just like thoughts in consciousness, thoughts unconscious because because they aren’t in conscious awareness not because their repressed or are bad urges/wishes, doesn’t drive all behaviour Ego psych: post Freudian psychoanalyst felt ego deserved more attention/that it preformed many constructive functions, Erikson emphasized ego as powerful/independent part of personality involved in master environment/achieving ones goals/establishing their identity, min role of ID 8 stages of psychosocial dev: stage model of dev different from freuds in that it last all life/no psychosexual stages of conflict, different from freud by maladaptive resolution where people get fixed at a stage, large part of dev during adolescence Trust V Mistrust: start at infancy, does kid find caregivers reliable, needs food/slee/care, if parents are consistent in giving needs child should dev trust but if not kid may find other unreliable/become fixated Autonomy V shame/doubt: starts around 2 years, as kid becomes more mobile it starts to test the environment, how much of world can kid control, can they have a sense of independency/will parent let them, if parents keep kids safe while letting them explore kids dev independence, helicopter parents make kids doubt they can do anything by themselves Guilt V initiative: starts around 3 years, can kid initiate play with other kids/can they do it while abiding by certain rule, if they can the dev initiative/if not doubt and feel guilty, lots of interaction with others, does kid initiate tasks/goals Industry V inferiority: elementary school, start to get feedback in school/grades, does kid feel good at what they do, industrious if feel they can do things/do them well, inferior if comparing self to others/they can’t do things as well as other Identity V role confusion: starts in adolescence, who am I/do others know me for me, teens try to figure out who they are, Erikson puts huge emphasis on this stage, problems of identity confusion/negative identity/identity foreclosure/moratorium Identity confusion: period when person doesn’t have strong sense of who they are in terms of values/careers/relations/ideologies Identity foreclosure: person emerge from identity crisis without firm sense of commitment to values/relations/career but form identity without exploring alt options Negative Identity: identity founded on undesirable anti-social roles such as gangsta, identity not widely accepted by society but may be by small group Moratorium: time taken to explore options before making commitment to an identity, uni allows students to explore various relations/roles/responsibilities Intimacy V isolation: young adulthood, who will I love/will I settle down, marriage doesn’t mean intamcy, people need to dev mutually satisfying relations Generativity V stagnation: adulthood, am I satisfied/have I succeeded, what’s going on outside of relation, do you think you contribute to society or are you not helping, what are you doing with your life/what do you care about Integrity V despair: old age, looking back on life was it all worth it, integrity is not afraid of death/your happy with your past, in despair you fear/wish you past was done differently Erikson V Freud: Erikson saw personalities as dev over entire lifespan unlike freud/underscored role of psychosocial factors compared to Freud’s Psychosexual, both had staged model that could have fixation if conflict is not resolved Feminist Psychoanalysis view: dev as Freud thought females inferior to males in resolving conflict in phallic stage, penis is symbol of social power girls wanted in culture of that time which show how culture impacts fear of success/gender differences Social power: Horney, penis is symbol for power rather then an organ they want to have, girls at early age realize their being denied social power due to gender, girls didn’t have secret desire to become boys, girls desire social power/preference given to boys in culture at the time Culture: set of shared standards for many behaviours, may contain different standards for male/females so that girls should be ashamed with promiscuous sex but boys should be proud of it/should even brag about it Fear of success: Horney, highlights gender differences in response to competition/achievement situations, many women feel if they succeed they will lose friends so many women have unconscious fear of success were as men feel they will gain friends with success/so aren’t afraid of it/try to succeed Gender differences: distinction between genders/sex can be traced back to Horney, she stressed that bio determines sex but cultural norms determine what acceptable for nor
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