PSYC 2740 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Neuroticism, Extraversion And Introversion, Impulsivity

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20 Nov 2018
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PSYC 2740
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CHAPTER 1
Definition of personality
o psychological traits
describe, explain, predict
o mechanisms
input, decision rules, output
o within the individual
consistent over time and over situations
o organized
o relatively enduring
o influence his or her interactions with and adaptations to the environment
3 levels of analysis in personality psychology
o human nature
every human being is like all others
ie the need to belong
o individual and group differences
every human being is like some others
ie variation in need to belong (indiv difference)
ie men more physically aggressive than women (group difference)
o individual uniqueness
every human being is like no others
2 approaches
nomotheticdifferences between ppl, quantitative
o ie uni student sample
ideographicfocus on 1 individual, qualitative
o ie a case study
fissure in the field
o gap between human nature and group/individual differences
6 domains of knowledge
o dispositional
traits
o biological
biological system
o intrapsychic
outside of consciousness
o cognitive experiential
thoughts and feelings
o social and cultural
social and cultural context
o adjustment
coping, adapting, adjusting
theory vs beliefs
o theorytested by systematic observation
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o belief based on faith, not systematic observation
theories are evaluated considering
o comprehensiveness
explains most or all known facts
o heuristic value
guides researchers to important, new discoveries
o testability
makes precise predictions that can be empirically tested
o parsimony
contains few assumptions
o compatibility
consistent with what is in other domains
o integration
can be coordinated with other branches of scientific knowledge
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