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PSYC2740 CH Notes (Pre midterm 1).docx
PSYC2740 CH Notes (Pre midterm 1).docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

PSYC 2740CH 1 Traitdescriptive adjectivesadjectives that can be used to describe characteristics of people Aspects of personality inner features social effects qualities of the mind and body relations to others and inner goals Personalityset of psychological traits and mechanisms within individual organized and relatively enduring influence interactions with and adaptations to intrapsychic physical and social environmentsPsychological traitscharacteristics that describe ways in which people are different similarDescribe average tendencies Useful to describe explain and predict behaviourdifferences Psychological mechanismsprocesses of personality involve infoprocessing activityInputs ie environment decision rules options and outputs actionie courageousness only activated under particular conditions o important sources of personality somewhat stable over time and consistent over situationsenduring especially in adulthood o mechanisms and traits linked and organized decisions rules govern which needs activated o trait ie angerpronestable enduring state ie angrytemporary depends on situationInfluential forcespersonality traits and mechanisms can have an effect on peoples lives how we act view ourselves think about the world interact feel select environments etc personalitykey in affecting how people shape their lives how we think act feelPersonenvironment interactionperceptions how we seeinterpret an environmentselections manner in which we choose situations to enter ie friends hobbies college classes careersevocations reactions we produce in others usually unintentionallywe create the social environment that we inhabit manipulations ways in which we intentionally attempt to influence others behaviour thoughts and feelingsAdaptationto accomplishing goals coping adjusting and dealing with challengesproblems ie physical environment sometimes poses threat to survivalintrapsychic within the mind environment memories dreams desires fantasies private experiences memories selfworth every human being is like all others human nature level universals some others level of individual and group differences particulars and no others individual uniqueness level uniquenessHuman naturetraits and mechanisms of personality that are typical of our species and are possessed by nearly everyone ie language skills fundamental psychological mechanisms Individual differencesways in which each person is like some other people ie extravertsDifferences between groupspeople in 1 group may have certain personality features in common make that group of people different from other groups ie different cultures age groups political parties men and women etc Nomotheticindividual instances of general characteristics distributed in the populationstatistical comparisons of individuals or groups samples of subjects researchapplied to identify universal human characteristics and dimensions of individual or group differencesIdiographicsingle unique cases general principle that manifest in life over timetheories attempt to provide universal account of fundamental psychological processes and characteristics of our species
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