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PSYC 3020 (35)
Dan Yarmey (29)

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PSYC 3020
Dan Yarmey

Chapter 1 An intro to forensic psychologyForensic psychology can be defined in a narrow or broad fashion Narrow definitions focus only on the clinical or experimental aspects of the field wheras broad definitions are less restrictive and encompass both aspectso Forensic psychology a field of psychology that deals with all aspects of human behaviour as it relates to the law or legal systemForensic psychologists can play different roles Clinical forensic psychologists are primarily interested in mental health as they pertain to law Experimental forensic psychologists are interested in studying any aspect of human behaviour that relates to the law ie eyewitness memory jury decision making risk assessment o Clinical forensic psychologists psychologists who are broadly concerned with the assessment and treatment of mental health issues as they pertain to law and the legal systemClinical forensic psychologists might also be interested in Divorce and cild custody mediationDeterminations of criminal responsibility insanity and fitness to stand trialExpert testimonyPersonnel selection ie for law enforcement agenciesConducting critical incident stress debriefings with police officersDesigning and conducting treatment programs for offenders o Forensic psychiatry a field of medicine that deals with all aspects of human behaviour as it relates to the law or legal system o Experimental forensic psychologists psychologists who are broadly concerned with the study of human behaviour as it relates to the law or legal system o Forensic anthropology examine the remains of deceased victims to determine key facts about them gender age appearance o Forensic linguistics examine the spoken and written word can assess language in suicide notes to determine whether theyre fake or genuine o Forensic chemistry study the chemical aspects of crime scenes which can include the analysis of paint particles dyes fibres etc o Forensic ondontology study dental aspects of criminal activity including identifying deceased victims through dental records determining bite marks based on age etc o Forensic pathology examine the remains of dead bodies in an attempt to determine the time and cause of death autopsy o Forensic entomology study how insects help to determine time of death based on insect presence at different points in time etc Psychology can relate to the field of law in 3 ways o Psychology and the law the use of psychology to examine the operation of the legal system o Psychology in the law the use of psychology in the legal system as that system operates o Psychology of the law the se of psychology to examine the law itselfThe history of forensic psychology is marked by many important milestones in both the research laboratory and in the courtroom Early research consisted of studies of eyewitness testimony and suggestibility and many of the early court cases in Europe where psychologists appeared as expert witnesses dealt with similar issues o Hugo Munsterberg father o forensic psychology played a significant role in establishing the field of forensic psychology in North America by the early 1900s forensic psychologists were active in many different parts of the North American justice systemwrote book on the witness standCurrently forensic psychology is viewed as a distinct and specialized discipline with its own textbooks journals and professional associations BOX 12 Biological Sociological and Psychological theories of crimeBiological o Sheldons 1949 constitutional theory crime is a product of an individuals body build endomorphs pear shaped hourglass obese mesomorphs muscular and ectomorphs skinny were linked to temperaments and therefore different types of crimeEndomorph jollyEctomorphintrovertedMesomorph bold and aggressive predisposed to violent crime o Jacobs Brunton Belville Brittan and McClemonts 1965 Chromosomal theorychromosomal irregularity is linked to criminal behaviour a normal female has 2 X chromosomes and a normal male has XY Discovered that there exist men with 2 Y Chromosomes which apparently made them more masculine and therefore more aggressive o Mark and Ervins 1970dyscontrol theory lesions on the temporal lobe and limbic system result in electrical disorganization in the brain which can lead to dyscontrol syndrome Symptoms include outbursts of physical violence impulsive sexual behaviour and serious traffic violationsSociological o Mertons 1938 strain theory crime is largely a product of the strain felt by certain individuals typically the lower class who have restricted access to legitimate means to achieving valued goals of success means such as education While some individuals will be happy with lesser goals that are achievable others will turn to illegitimate means such as crime in an attempt to achieve the valued goals o Sutherlands 1939 Differential Association Theory criminal behaviour is learned though social interactions in which people are exposed to values that can either be favourable or unfavourable to violations of the law More specifically people are likely to become involved in criminal activity when they learn more values ie attitudes that are favourable to violations of the law vs compliance o Beckers 1963 Labelling Theory deviance ie antisocial behaviour is not inherent to an act but a label attached to an act by society Thus a criminal results primarily from a process of society labelling an individual as a criminal This process is thought to promote the individuals deviant behaviour through a selffulfilling prophecy which is an originally false prediction that the persons actions make true so a kid in class is labelled as a bad kid because of something they may have done or a bad first impression Because the teacher and other teachers may treat this kid differently for being bad ie not trusting them more supervision harder marking etc the kid may continue to act badly thus actually becoming a bad kid for realPsychological o Bowlbys 19944 theory of maternal deprivation early separation of children from their mothers prevents effective social development from taking place Without this children will experience longterm problems in developing positive social relationships and will instead develop antisocial behaviour patterns o Eysencks 1964 biosocial theory of crime some individuals ie extraverts and neurotics are born with cortical and autonomic nervous systems that influence their ability to learn from the consequences of their actions especially the negative consequences experienced in childhood as part of the socialization and consciencebuilding process Because of their poor conditionability it is assumed that individuals who exhibit high levels of extraversion and neuroticism will have strong antisocial inclinations o Gottfredson and Hirschis 1990 general theory of crime low selfcontrol internalized early in life in the presence of criminal opportunities explains an individuals propensity to commit crimesExpert Witnesses differ from regular witnesses in that Expert Witnesses can testify about their opinions wheras other witnesses can testify only as to what they know to be facto Expert witness a witness who provides the court with information often an opinion on a particular matter that assists the court in understanding an issue of relevance to a case o In Canada the criteria for determining whether an experts testimony will be admitted into court relates to whether the testimony 1 is relevant 2 goes beyond the common understanding of the court 3 does not violate any exclusionary rules and 4 comes from a qualified expertThough he wasnt a forensic psychologist Kenneth Clark made an important contribution to this field The citation of his work by the US supreme court in Brown v Board of Education showed that psychological research could play a role in the courtroom this case challenged the constitutionality of segregated public schools General acceptance test a standard for accepting expert testimony which states that expert testimony will be admissible in court if the basis of the testimony is generally accepted within the relevant scientific communityDaubert criteria a standard for accepting expert testimony which states that scientific evidence is valid if the research on which it is based has been peer reviewed is testable has a recognized rate of error and adheres to professional standardsMohan criteria a standard for accepting expert testimony which states that expert testimony will be admissible in court if the testimony is relevant is necessary for assisting the trier of fact does not violate any exclusionary rules and is provided by a qualified expertPsychology of Law CHAPTER 2 Police SelectionPolice selection is important to hire indiv who have the highest potential for success Police Selection ProceduresSet of procedures used by the police to either screen out undesirable candidates or select desirable candidatesPolice are now using social media to recruit young adults ie Facebook blogs etc A Brief History of Police Selection In 1917 Lewis Terman uses the StafordBinet Intelligence Test for police selection processesRecommended a minimum IQ score Also ended up using personality tests 1960s and 1970s changes United StatesRequirements for higher education for police officersFormal selection processes test to measure cognitive abilitiesCanada uses personality tests medical exams Police aptitude test and cognitive ability tests The Police Selection ProcessStage OneJob Analysis StageAgency must define the knowledge skills and abilities KSA of a good police officer Stage TwoConstruction and Validation StageAgency must develop an instrument for measuring the extent to which police applicants possess these KSAs Must determine the instruments validityscores on the instrument actually relate to measures of actual onthejob police performance Conducting Job AnalysisA procedure for identifying the knowledge skills and abilities that makes a good police officerOrganizational psychologist does the job analysis Problem for Analysts KSAs change when position in job changes Ie constable supervisor and manager
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