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Midterm 2 notes.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3020
Dan Yarmey

Chapter 3 The Psychology of Police Investigation Police Interrogations p57confession evidence is considered a prosecutors most potent weapon Kasin and police often go to great lengths to obtain confessions in North America a confession must be backed up with hard evidence it is more likely that a person who has confessed to a crime will be prosecuted and convicted than those that did not one of the goals of police interrogation is to gain information from the suspect that furthers the investigation Kasin police interrogations were coercive in the past eg Brown vs Mississippi1932 when whipping was used to obtain a confession 1980s police used a stun gun to extract a confession these overt acts have been replaced by more subtle psychologically based interrogation techniques such as lying about evidence primising lenient treatments and implying threats to loved ones Leo 1992Box 31The Mr Big Technique Smith Stinson Patry 2009 generally involves undercover police officers who pose as members of a criminal organization and attempt to lure the suspects into the gang suspect is made to commit to the gang by committing small crimes suspect is then interviewed for a higher position before he can seal the deal he must confess to a serious crime the one under investigation several reasons are given as to why suspect needs to confess form of insurance so Mr Big can pull on his influences to make the problem disappear once confession is made is used against them in court prior to 2004 technique used at least 350 times in Canada technique is effective resulting in 75 success rate and 95 conviction rate used in the Mayerthorpe RCMP murders in 2005James Roszko shot and killed four police officers although he acted alone the Mr Big technique was used to show he had two others were also involved ethic issues raised Is it entrapmentR v Mack 1988says nodoes not cause the crime but rather elicits the confession of a previous crime Does it raise other ethical issuesR v Menchuck 2000says noconsidered a reasonable use of police trickeryThe Reid Model of Interrogation p59 based on a book written by Inbau et all 2004Criminal Interrogation and Confession although the technique was developed by John E Reid a polygrapher from Chicago 3 part process first is to gather evidence interview witnesses and victim secondconduct a nonaccusatorial interview of the suspect third conduct an accusatorial interrogation of suspect and consist of 9 stepssuspect immediately confronted with guilt psychological themes developed interrogator interrupts any statements of denial interrogator overcomes the suspects objections ensure the suspect does not tune out and reduces psychological distance interrogator shows sympathy and understanding suspect offered facesaving explanations suspect accepts responsibility suspect write everything downcan be broken down into two categories friendly and unfriendly Mutt and Jeff techniques and minimizations and maximization techniques Minimization techniquesthese refer to softsell tactics designed to lull the suspect into false sense of security Maximization techniquesrefer to scare tactics designed to intimidate the suspectKassin et al 2007 conducted a study of 631 polic officers and their interrogation practises
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