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Midterm 2 Psych of Law Master Summary.docx

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PSYC 3020
Dan Meegan

Midterm 2 Psych of Law Master SummaryManual SummaryUnit 4 Police ProceduresProfiling Criminal Suspects1Some types of crimes ritualistic sexual abuse torture etc may be revealed by psychological analyses2The manner of these crimes often leave cues left at the time that allows the investigators to know something about the suspects personalitypossible behaviour patterns3Criminal profiling also is done for crimes involving drug couriers hijackers etc4Since the 1970s the FBIs Behaviour Science Unitpolice forces have developed and used psychological profiles5Through extensive interviews authorities can determine the offenders selection of victims personality makeup background etc6Psychological profiling begins with the analysis of physical and photographic evidence of the victim and crime scene collection of info on the victim movements prior to the crime autopsy and forensic lab reports and witness statements7Hypotheses are generatedanalyzed for possible motives of the crime possible location time and sequences of acts8Crimes are assessed for such factors as the likelihood that the crime was an organized planned incident or not the type of weapon was the crime staged to hide other motivations and how many people were involved9The final written profile usually contains info about the suspect age race sex employment family background educational background habits arrest history type of vehicle used in the crime relation to victim predictions on future actions etc etc10Problem psychological profiles does not identify specific suspects any danger of narrowing investigative perspectives discount info that does not match the profile etc11Psychological profiling is more of an a rt development through experience Its development and use helps good police practicesDetection of Deception12The detection of lying depends on the interviewer making an analysis of the speakers verbal and nonverbal behaviour leaks through limb movement or facial expressions13Decreases in limb movement may be indicative of deception as well as facial characteristics facial cues that do not fit the context14Deception can be detected more from listening than seeing the speaker15When verbal and nonverbal behaviour collide nonverbal behaviour are usually more accurate16When speakers are unable to rehearse their speech deception is more correlated with sleep disturbances slower rates of speech higher pitch and longer latency periods before answering questions17Deceptive individuals are less likely to admit to forgetting aspects of an event that are truthsayers18Occupational differences affect accuracy in judgments of deception in people19Some people for reasons not yet understood may look like theyre lying when they are notLie Detection The Polygraph20The use of technical aids to uncover deception is an old process first used over 2000 years ago21People suspected of a crime were told to eat a bowl of dry rice If it went down smoothly they were telling the truth If they had a hard time this indicated deception due to the emotional reaction dry mouth22The polygraph measures subtle changes in heart rate blood pressure respiration and perspiration autonomic nervous system Changes in these usuallystress23Responses are recorded in graph form to critical question and control questions24The lies are not detected but physiological responses changes in heart rate increase in blood pressure are subjected to interpreting by the polygraph examiner252 sorts of errors are possible1An innocent person who is afraiddoesnt believe in polygraph may produce false positive results similar to deceptors These occur more often than false negatives2Individuals who are unusually unresponsive may go undetected and produce false negatives26According to proponents of the technique the accuracy rate is 90 versus opponents argument that is 70 accurate27In 1987 the Supreme Court of Canada concluded that the results of polygraph tests are not admissible as evidence in court28However the RCMP and local police services continue to use polygraph examinations in investigations in hopes of a confession29Most individuals are not aware that following the test that the may be subjected to intensive interrogation good copbad cop being isolated for long periods of time may heighten anxiety etc30Those who feel morally responsible may result in physiological changes If told that the machine indicated deception a confession may be induced because of peoples faith in the test to distinguish lies from the truthConfessions31A confession is defined as a written or oral statement or even a nod of the head by an accused which is an admission of guilt or an admission of fact that tends to prove hisher guilt32The court can rule a confession as involuntary if there are oppressive conditions threatening question styles etc33More than 80 of criminal cases are estimated to be solved by confessions34According or legal scholars nothing has more impact on the trial judge or jury than a confession35Confessions can lead to a number of psychological religious and moral benefits for the suspect as well as legal considerations shorter length of punishment etc36False confessions due occur due to a combination of factors related to interrogative influence and psychological vulnerability37False confessions may be categorized into three types1Voluntaryno internalexternal pressure to protect someone else get an awardavoid punishment for recognition etc2Coercedcompliantan innocent person confessing under extreme pressure to avoid a very negative situation or to get a reward promised by the interrogator3Coercedinternalizedan innocent person who comes to believe that heshe is truly guilty based on the creation of false memories Individuals in this type of confession are usually highly vulnerable to suggestibility of lower intelligence highly stressed etcHypnosis38Hypnoticallyassisted memory retrieval may play a critical role as an investigative tool in police procedures39One group of scientists explain hypnosis as a roleplaying state and take a socialcognitive interpretation of this process1The hypnotized person plays the social role Because it is seen in movies and read in books the person acts how they are expected to fulfilling a social role2The hypnotized believes that they have no personal control over their behaviours and feelings except for what is suggested to them by the hypnotist40An opposing theoretical view of hypnosis is referred to as neodissociation theory1Hypnosis operates by inducing 2 kinds of dissociations or splits in consciousness2The first dissociated experience acts as an amnesiarelated barrier that prevents experiences occurring during hypnosis from normal consciousness3The second experience the dissociated control state removes the individual from normal control over hisher behaviour 1Suggestions from the hypnotist in a direct uncritical fashion are likely because the normal control centers have been put to the side This is defined as being in an altered state of consciousness41More psychologists support the socialcognitive theoretical literature versus neodissociation theory42The power of hypnosis depends on the participants susceptibility or ability to follow suggestion versus capability of the hypnotist43Hypnosis has important therapeutic benefits or healing powers for those persons who are induced through power suggestion to believe in its value44Hypnosis does NOT refresh witness memories to raise the accuracy of recall of details related to a crime or improve identification of a suspect In fact hypnosis may contaminate memory and lead to false recall an false identification with high confidence for events and people they never experiencedPolice Interrogation45The purpose of police interrogation is to gather information about a crime and if possible obtain a confession46Inbau Reid and Buckley 1986 advocate that police take a rough approach in breaking a suspects resistance to tell the truth The ninestep approach is below1Positive confrontationaccuse suspects with a presentations of real or fictional evidence showing their involvement in the crime2Theme developmentbuild rapport with emotional suspects by offering a moral excuse for their actions with nonemotional suspects seek to scare or intimidate by pointing out their lies and the seriousness of their charges3Handling denialsstop denials of guilt by focusing on and persisting with the conversational theme of the interrogation4Overcoming objectionswhen suspects provide rationalizations feign understanding but get back to the theme5Retain subjects attentionwhen suspects realize their denials are ineffective impose your physical presence by moving closer touching seeking or maintaining eye contact6Handling suspects moodwhen a suspect moves from inattentiveness to more awareness focus on hisher reasons for committing the crime Appear understanding and supportive of the value of speaking the truth and remorsefulness
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