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Midterm

PSYC3390 Midterm: DSM - Diagnosis Criteria


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3390
Professor
Heather Mc Lean
Study Guide
Midterm

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PSYC*3390 - DSM: Diagnosis Criteria
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): characterized by constant unproductive worrying about
everyday minor events
Cognitive characteristics: (1) intolerance of uncertainty, (2) erroneous beliefs about worry ->
being helpful, (3) poor problem orientation -> avoid not confront, (4) cognitive avoidance
DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for GAD
A. Excessive anxiety and worry (apprehensive expectation), occurring more days than not for at
least 6 months, about a number of events or activities (such as work or school performance).
B. The individual finds it difficult to control the worry.
C. The anxiety and worry are associated with three (or more) of the following six symptoms
(with at least some symptoms having been present for more days than not for the past 6
months):
Note: Only one item is required in children.
1. Restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge.
2. Being easily fatigued.
3. Difficulty concentrating or mind going blank.
4. Irritability.
5. Muscle tension.
6. Sleep disturbance (difficulty falling or staying asleep, or restless, unsatisfying sleep).
D. The anxiety, worry, or physical symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment
in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
E. The disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of
abuse, a medication) or another medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism).
F. The disturbance is not better explained by another mental disorder: anxiety or worry about
having panic attacks in panic disorder; negative evaluation in social anxiety disorder social
phobia; contamination or other obsessions in obsessive-compulsive disorder; separation from
attachment figures in separation anxiety disorder; reminders of traumatic events in post-trau-
matic stress disorder; gaining weight in anorexia nervosa; physical complaints in somatic
symptom disorder; perceived appearance flaws in body dysmorphic disorder; having a seri-
ous illness in illness anxiety disorder; or the content of delusional beliefs in schizophrenia or
delusional disorder.
Panic Disorder
Panic Disorder (PD): individuals experience severe unexpected panic attacks; feeling of dying
or losing control
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DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Panic Disorder
A. Recurrent unexpected panic attacks. A panic attack is an abrupt surge of intense fear or in-
tense discomfort that reaches a peal within minutes, and during which time 4 or more of the
following symptoms occur:
Note: the abrupt surge can occur from a calm state or an anxious state
1. Palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerate heart rate
7. Sweating
8. Trembling or shaking
9. Sensations of shortness of breath or smothering
10. Feelings of choking
11. Chest pain or discomfort
12. Nausea or abdominal distress
13. Feeling dizzy, unsteady, light-headed, or faint
14. Chills or heat sensations
15. Paresthesias (numbness or tingling sensations)
16. Derealization (unreality) or depersonalization (detached from self)
17. Fear of losing control or going crazy
18. Fear of dying
G. At least one of the attacks has been followed by 1 month or more of the following:
1. Persistent concern or worry about additional panic attacks or their consequences (ex:
heart attack).
19. A significant maladaptive change in behaviour related to the attacks (ex: avoidance be-
haviours).
H. The disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects or a substance or other medi-
cal conditions.
I. The disturbance is not better explained by another mental disorder (ex: the panic attacks do
not only occur in response to feared social situations, as in social anxiety disorders; in re-
sponse to circumscribed phobia objects of situations as in specific phobia; in response to ob-
sessions as in OCD; in response to reminders of traumatic events as in PTSD, or in response
to separation from attachment figures an in separation anxiety disorder.
Agoraphobia
Agoraphobia: fear and avoidance of situations in which a person feels unsafe or unable to es-
cape to get home or to a hospital in the event of panic or physical symptoms
DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Agoraphobia
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A. Marked fear or anxiety about more than one situation from a characteristic cluster of agora-
phobic situations. Agoraphobic situations typically include: being outside the home alone;
public transportation (e.g., traveling in a bus, train, ship, plane); open spaces (e.g., parking
lots and market place); being in shops, the theatre, or cinemas; standing in line or being in a
crowd
J. The individual fears and/or avoids these situations because escape might be difficult or help
might not be available in the event of incapacitation or panic-like symptoms
K. The agoraphobic situations almost invariably provoke immediate fear or anxiety
L. The agoraphobic situations are avoided, require the presence of a companion, or are endured
with intense fear or anxiety
M. The fear or anxiety is out of proportion to the actual danger posed by the agoraphobic situa-
tions
N. The duration is at least 6 months
O. The fear, anxiety, and avoidance cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social,
occupational, or other important areas of functioning
P. The fear, anxiety, and avoidance are not restricted to the direct physiological effects of a sub-
stance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., cardiopul-
monary disorders)b
Q. The fear, anxiety, and avoidance are not restricted to the symptoms of another mental disor-
der, such as Specific Phobia (e.g., if limited to one or a few circumscribed phobic objects or
situations), Social Phobia (e.g., in response to feared social situations), OCD (e.g., in re-
sponse to dirt in someone with an obsession about contamination), PTSD (e.g., in response
to stimuli associated with a traumatic event), or Separation Anxiety Disorder (e.g., in re-
sponse to being away from home or close relatives)
Specific Phobia
Specific Phobia: an irrational fear of a specific object or situation that markedly interferes
with an individual’s ability to function (fear not proportional to danger)
Four major types: animal, natural/environmental, blood/injection. situational
DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria
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