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First Midterm Review

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PSYC 3450
Karl Hennig

2/11/2013 11:11:00 AM Social-Personality Development Midterm Review Review Qs What represents the achievement of adult status? Compare collective and individualistic, as to how the notion of ‘adult status’ has changed historically? 1. Adult status involves marriage, leaving parents, sex, having children and working among adults; in collective cultures this happens at the same time during the teen years but in modern individual culture, these occur at different times across a new developmental stage called adolescence and even further into extended adulthood (people in 30s are still living at home, people are getting married later) Describe the three descriptive facts concerning sexual-social development and how these result in a maturity gap; be sure to discuss age of first sex and number of partners 1. Youth are biologically maturing earlier, people are getting married later and later and not long after puberty, people have sex and have always done so; these open a maturity gap in which individuals proceed through a series of relationships, punctuated for some casual sex encounters (hookups); avg. age for 1 sex 16-19 and females are catching up to males for number of parnters Discuss the function of dating in terms of the two stage-salient tasks of adolescence 1. Identity (who am i) and establishing the relational foundations needed for a successful long- term romantic relationship in which children are born (family) Identify Schwartz’s value scheme as these describe traditional and modern cultures (three values for each); discuss how these historical shifts are reflected in this shift in values 1. Collective cultures value tradition, conformity and security whereas modern cultures value self-direction, stimulation, and hedonism; these values are reflected in historical shifts of permissiveness and indulgence and desires for individuality and autonomy How does the hook up culture starting in the 90s differ from the previous post 60s sexually permissive culture? Discuss 5 contributing factors of the hookup culture 1. Birth control, womens movements, gender distinction on campus, rising binge alcohol use, pornification of mass media and rise of narcissitic entitlement all could contribute to hookup culture; we use the term hookup instead of ‘going steady’ and romance and relationships seem underisable whereas casual sex has become norm What are the general rates and or types of hookup? 1. Hooking up generally occurs at parties or clubs, 2/3 or ¾ college students hook up and of those that did hookup they involved regulars, randoms, booty calls, and friend with benefits Discuss reasons feminists have suggested that hookup culture is not healthy for women 1. the ‘orgasm gap’ in which women orgasm 32% as often as men do, possibility of hookup culture being an expression of the male sexual strategy which females must comply with if they are to be normal, possibility of damage to reputation for women and having a difficult time shaping the trajectory of a sexual encounter once its begun Describe/explain the unwantedness/consent continuum 1. <<<>>>>> Briefly describe maltz hierarchy 1. Level 3+ authentic sexual intimacy/Level 2+ making love/ level 1+ positive role fulfillment/sexual energy (ground zero)/level -1 impersonal interaction/level -2 abusive interaction/level -3 violent interaction Describe three red flags for dating violence 1. Dominance, power or control/ isolation that’s driven by jealousy or dependence/ mental health issues, personality changes, justifications and excuses are made for the person/ weakened sense of self/ negative future impact Discuss gender and non/reciprocity as these pertain to dating violence, highlight the shift from the older view to the current view 1. Red flags assume nonreciprocal male perpetration however recent research shows 50% of violent relationships being reciprocal and 45% to 72% are reciprocal in adolescence; was the woman defending herself? Only small amount of woman say their violence was in self- defence and therefore cant fully explain the high reciprocity rates; in nonreciprocal violent relationships, females were perpetrator in majority of cases Identify characteristics of dating violence 1. Perpetrator abuses alcohol or drugs, has low self-esteem, depression, or features of antisocial personality disorder and problem solving deficits; the victim places blame on themselves and may have experienced physical abuse as a child Why do people stay in violent relationships? 1. People may stay in violent relations due to low self-esteem, poor coping mechanisms or masochism; may be very dependent on perpetrator, alternatives may be less than desireable and a strong emotional investment or financial dependence Describe the different forms of love described by sternbergs model, how does love change over time? Liking ROMANTIC LOVE Intimacy COMPANIONATE LOVE Infatuation Passion Commitment Empty Love FATUOUS LOVE *the ULTIMATE is Consummate love (intimacy+passion+commitment), this is Western ideal commitment increases over time and then levels off intimacy increases rapidly and then slowly and steadly increases over time passion hits a peak early in the relationship and then drops dramatically and levels off Identify 3 main functions of marriage and the family 1. The three main functions are a) providing a stable family unit in which children learn about their societies rule and morals b) providing an economic partnership that integrates child rearing, performance of household tasks and earning an income into one family unit and c) inheritance rights to family property How has the family changed from collective to individual cultures 2. In a collectivist family you believe ‘for better or for worse, until death do us part’ you stick to your contract no matter what and think of the family, 90% of marriages are arranged in india; 33% of males and 25% of female 30-34 year olds never married (4x higher than in the 70s), nonmonogomous relationships like swinging and open marriage are more prominent, interracial marriages are more prominent and there is a greater expectation for marital and sexual satisfaction; the internet plays an increasing role in matching couples and cohabitation (most common in mid-20s, only 33% last 2 years, and only 10% last 5 or more years) there is more divorce and therefore less stability in modern family and therefore society Describe types of families; include the effects on child development/outcome and the problems or challenges that face each of these kinds of families 3. Adoptive families; majority develop securely attached parent-child relationships and are well adjusted but the differences in genetic dispositions may form an incompatibility 4. Donar insemination families; children faired well at 12 years, and since there is no genetic tie to father there tends to be less involvement with discipline and other areas and more detached relationships 5. Gay/lesbian families; historical concerns have been disconfirmed (mental health, molestation) and conerns for gender typing issues and the like have been proven unvalid Describe the family dynamics associated with coercive family environments 1. In coercive home environments family members irritate one another and use aggressive tactics as a method of coping; there is negative reinforcement of coercive behaviours and aggressive, poorly adjusted children are to be expected Describe the modern parenting context 2. Parents are indulging their children and have developed a more permissive parenting style Describe baumrinds parenting model PARENTING STYLES Controlling/Demanding Uncontrolling/Undemanding Accepting/responsive Authoritative parent Permissive parent Aloof/unresponsive Authoritarian parent Uninvolved parent Describe authoritarian parenting; how does that baumrind model NOT fit with Asian or African American culture 3. Asian American families expect respect and loyalty, obedience and there is huge parental devotion, sacrifice and commitment to the children; they have largely authoritarian parenting styles but almost double of their children compared to the general population receive atleast a BA degree 4. African American families use a no nonsense parenting style; several studies show protective factors of restrictive parental control in this et
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