Social and Personality Development Midterm 2 Review
Social and Emotional Development
1. What is meant by the term attachment?
Attachment is a close emotional relationship between two persons,
characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity; people
form strong bonds with people whom they rely on for protection, comfort and
2. Broadly speaking, how is secure attachment believed to arise and with
what results? How does insecure attachment arise, and with what
In regards to secure attachment, interactions with attachment figures who are
available in times of need and are sensitive and responsive to bids for proximity
and support, results include: optimal functioning, inner sense of security,
confidence in support seeking
In regards to insecure attachment, when attachment figures are rejecting and
unavailable in times of need, results include: self-related doubts and emotional
problems, undermining of ones own sense of security, alternative affect
regulation strategies develop
3. Briefly describe the structure of the Strange Situation (SSn) in the
measurement of attachment.
Strange situation is when parent and baby enter a play room, parent sits with
baby, stranger enters, parent leaves, parent returns, parent and stranger leave,
stranger returns, parent returns
4. Describe the measurement of attachment as involving two basic
aspects. Describe these and how they fit with assessment in the SSn.
5. Describe the four categories of parent-child attachment
Measurement of attachment assessed secure base (exploration in presence of
attachment figure in beginning of SSn) and safe haven (comfort seeking after
reunions in the SSn)
6. If given a secure base script, be able to score it and discuss in terms of
secure base scripts.
Setting, crisis, signals of distress, sensitivity and responsiveness to the signals
and if victim is soothed and there is a resolution of the problem (these are codes)
Social and Emotional Development II
7. What is “transference”? The term was used by Freud to explain what
The inappropriate mirroring of a relationship we had in the past (childhood)
placed on someone in the present (the therapist usually); Freud noticed that his
patients were responding to him as if he was the patients father, this is
8. Bowlby prefered the term “internal working model.” Explain the
phrase. Cognitive representations of internal schemas of self, others and relationships
that infants construct from their interactions with caregivers; ‘working’ implies
that these change over time
9. Where Freud would have used the term “mental representation”,
contemporary psychology is more likely to use the term “schema.” What
is meant by schematic processing?
Schemas are organized bodies of information that guide our perceptions and
behaviour; we think in terms of what we know and tend to have self-fulfilling
prophecies among other things
10.Describe ___ (3 of the 6 given) risk factors for insecure attachment.
Insensitive parenting increases with health, legal and financial
problems/unhappy marriages prior to the child/at risk , irritable babies/
depressed moms/ parents who were abused, neglected/unplanned pregnancy
11.Provide ___ (3 of the 5 given) reasons why attachment can not be
reduced to temperament.
Maternal attachment is unrelated to paternal attachment/ parental training of
moms with difficult children/ maternal life problems/ child problems/ twin
12.Be able to briefly describe each of the four attachment styles (see last
Secure: 65%, explores when with mother, greets mother warmly upon reunion
Resistant: 10%, explores little, ambivalent upon reunion
Avoidant: 20% not distressed upon separation and may ignore on reunion
Disorganized 5-10%, stressed by SSn, approach-avoidant confusion, odd
13.Why might paper & pencil, self-reported attachment not be a true
indicator of actual attachment internal working models?
We change as we get older, might have change attachment styles as we aged or
changed due to personality factors, etc and a self report might not be reflective
of how we were as infants
Social and Emotional Development III
14.Describe two of the core questions in the AAI. What does the AAI assess?
There is an analogous logic [comparableness] in assessing parent-child
attachment in the SSn, and assessing adult attachment on the AAI.
Discuss [for secure attachment] in terms of the two core attachment
First question asks about relationship with parents as a young child as far back
as you can remember and second question asks to whom are you closest to and
why you don’t feel the same about your other parent and how you reacted when
you were upset
The adult attachment interview (AAI) assesses narrative coherence (how you
talk about your past is more important than the quality in ones past history)
To whom were you closet to? (secure base) when you were upset as a child what
would you do? (safe haven) 15.Describe each of the four attachment categories on the AAI.
Secure: adults are free to explore both the negative and positive memories of
past events and the accompanying emotions
Avoidant: adults dismiss themselves cognitively or behaviourally from the
source of distress, have fewer memories and are negative and rejecting
Preoccupied: preoccupied with significant figures in their past; they are their
emotions and emotions associated with past hurt arise immediately
Disoriented: unresolved with regards to trauma
16.Discuss the case example of John. Discuss the dissociations and
discrepancies that were found in his AAI. What defensive mechanism is