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Midterm

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3450
Professor
Dan Meegan
Semester
Fall

Description
• Essay questions • Describe three attributes of the term “development.” How is it different from “mere change”? • Why might it be presumptuous, even arrogant, to be a classical developmentalist? • Identify and discuss 5 ways in which the social context of human development has historically changed from collective to individualistic (modern) cultures. o Collective 1. Rural 2. Maintain status quo (stasis) 3. Fixed gender roles 4. Marriage as a family/social/economically arrangment (India 90% ) 5. Individual/group survival o Individualistic 1. Urban (dissolution of collective ties) 2. Novel solutions for new problems of adaptation (change/development) 3. LGBT (gender & sexuality not discrete categories) 4. Marriage is between 2 people, for “love” 5. Individual (self)-fulfilment, realization, expression • What represents the achievement of “adult status”? Compare (traditional) collective and (modern) individualistic, as to how the notion of “adult status” has changed historically? o Adult status involves marriage, leaving parents, sex, having children & working among adults o Collective cultures: happens at the same time, during the teen years (e.g., Barmitzva) o In modern individual culture, these occur at different times across a new developmental stage called “adolescence” ...further yet.. extended adulthood where people in the 30s are still at or moving back home • Describe the three descriptive facts concerning sexual-social development and how these result in a "maturity gap"? Be sure to discuss age of first sex and # of partners, as these pertain. o Fact 1: Youth are biologically maturing earlier (menarche is 1 yr earlier) o Fact 2. People are getting married at ever later ages 1. Males: 27 yrs ,Females: 25 yrs o Fact 3. Not long after puberty people have sex, and have always done so. 1. Average age for 1 sex drops slightly (cross-culturally has always been 16-19yrs), 2. what changes is the average # of partners- increases 3. Today early first sex predicts # of sex partners st 4. Vs. teens 50 yrs ago where early 1 sex (<18yrs) had fewer partners because tended to marry their first sexual partner o The first two facts open up a “maturity gap” in which individuals typically proceed through a series of (largely monogomous) relationships, punctuated for some by casual sex encounters (“hookups”) - Fact 3 1. Sexual experimentation & experience is often viewed as desirable in this life stage o The maturity gap is the time where you will either grow and carry learnings forward, or become hurt and damage the potential for future healthy relationships • identify Schwartz’s value scheme as these describe traditional and modern cultures (three values for each). Discuss how these historical shifts are reflected in this shift in values. o View 1. Modern society has become self-absorbed, narcissistic, secularized (death of spirituality/religion), amoral/relativist, nihilist (life is without inherent meaning) o View 2. While acknowledging that thereARE some negative exagerations of modern life, there remains a liberating freedom in modern “progress.” • “Modern” o “Self”-direction (autonomy, choosing, creating) o Stimulation (excitement, novelty) o Hedonism (happiness, pleasure) • Collective o Tradition (preserve) o Conformity (restraint, obedience) o Security (social order, harmony, stable society)  Sex & Gender Development: • Lecture 2 • Smiler (2008). What is the pop media image of adolescent boys? What research supports and rejects this image? o boys’stereotypic sexual behaviors: promiscuity, sexual initiators, emph women’s bodies as objects, minimize relational aspects of romantic relations o Research: boys do have earlier age of coitus, more coital partners… provides some support, however effects are small to moderate, and decreasing over time historically o Assume primary motive for dating is to allow access to a sexual partner • Smiler (2008). What four dating motive factors (vs. items) were most endorsed? What three motive factors for sex where most endorsed? o conformity(“not want to be only one without one”), interest (“want to get to know”), connection (“like the person”), pursued (“I was pushed, why not”) o Scale endorsement: interest & connection > conformity & pursued o Three sex motive factors: conformity (“fit in”), relationship (“partner wanted to”), unintentional (inverse of “I was ready”; [i.e.,just happened]) o Endorsement: unintentnl & relationship > conformity • Smiler (2008). What two facets define masculine ideology (MI)? What relation was found between MI and sex/dating motives? Consistent with previous findings & expectations? o Two aspects of MI: stoicism & dominance o E.g., “a guy will loose respect if he talks about his problems” (restricted emotionality; stoicism); “in a good dating relationship, the guy gets what his way most of the time” (dominance; power & priviledge in relationships) o Results: boys not that supportive of MI (low avg) o MI did not predict dating or sexual motives, except low MI predicted “pursued” dating motives • Smiler (2008). Summarize/discuss four (of the five) main resulting points of the study. 1. Dating and sexual motives endorsed were much broader than wanting sex only, Most common dating motive: getting to know person 2. Most common sex motive: also relational motives, Few connections between motives, MI, and sexual behaviors (but #participants was low, little power) 3. Boys are genuinely interested in relational aspects of relationships – contrary to pop culture, Intercourse as a physical expression of romantic love and emotional intimacy 4. Boys may distinguish interest (want to get to know) from connection (like the person) dating motives, perhaps interest at the beginning and connection pertains to sustaining a relationship 5. Conformity motives (sex & dating) are not highly endorsed – “peer pressure”, but may add to (status) • Briefly describe maltz’s hierarchy. • Briefly describe ____ (e.g., 3) ‘red flags’for dating violence (DV; 3 X 3 marks = 9). o Dominance/Power/Control - who makes the decisions? Monitors who she talks with and sees; what she reads; threatens abuse, threatens to leave, suicide o Isolation - can’t hangout with old friends o Mental health issues  Depression? Anger issues? Substance use/abuse? o jealousy • Discuss gender and non/reciprocity as these pertain to dating violence. Be sure to highlight the shift from the older view to the current view. o 50% of violent relationships are reciprocal o Adolescent studies find 45 to 72% are reciprocal o male and female initiate (vs. defend) at the same rates o best predictor of female victimization is her perpetration o in National Survey both initiate at least 40% of time o only a small portion of women say it was in self-defence o hence, self-defence can’t fully explain high reciprocity o males inflicted great harm than females o consistent with previous literature o but males less likely to go to emergence and/or report o In nonreciprocal violent relationships, females were the perpetrator in a majority of cases o in male reciprocal violent relations, less violence o Reciprocal violent relationships predicted greater violence, however for female violent acts • Identify ___ (e.g., 3) characteristics of ____ (victims, perpetrators) of dating violence o Developmental history o experience physical abuse as child (intergenerational model; social learning) o 50% of those physical abused had experienced DV o stronger effect if include witnessing intrafamily violence o grater likelihood of DV if experienced periodic or total absence of either mother or father o Earlier blame of victim (low SE, poor coping, masocism) • Perpetrator • Developmental history • Intergenerational model has dominated in past • Several researchers have found childhood abuse to be a risk factor for females initiating dating violence, but not for males • Clinical variables o alcohol & drugs o involved in 1/3 of incidents of DV • Attitudes about the acceptability of violence as a means of problem solving • low self-esteem, depression, and features of antisocial personality disorder are clinically significant • Problem solving/comm deficits – unable to express feelings & request help • Why do people stay in violent relations? • Low SE, poor coping, masocism? • Vs victim blame, more recent move to recognize the interdependent nature of relationships: o quality and number of alternatives may be less desirable that current partner o feels has strong emotional investment, not ready to leave • ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • (Marriage &) THE FAMILY • Lecture #1 • Bacterial infections • Chlamydia o rates: females 3X > male
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