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Social Personality and Development (PSYC 3450) Review Questions for Exam

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PSYC 3450
Shaina Rosenrot

Social­Personality Development Review  Questions—Exam Midterm 1 Material 1) What represents the achievement of “adult status”? Compare (traditional) collective and (modern) individualistic, as to how the notion of “adult status” has changed historically? • The definition of adult status is leaving parents homes, getting married, having sex, having children and working among adults • In traditional culture o People become adults during their teen years o Adulthood occurs at the same time for all individuals o It is understood (unambiguous) when adulthood arrives o They go through a formal and ritualized rite of passage • In modern culture o Adulthood varies across the ‘adolescence’developmental stage o Adolescence is considered a societal and financial drain o Extended adolescence means people in their 30s are still at or moving back home with their parents o There is no clear transition to adulthood from adolescence, therefore it is ambiguous when one becomes a ‘full adult’ 2) What is referred to as the "maturity gap"? How has it changed our understanding of romantic love & relationships. How is positive “development” viewed? • Maturity gap: the time between biological maturity and full adult status ○ This gap is increasing in modern society ○ It is a time for exploration for adolescents • Normally individuals proceed through a series of monogamous relationships with some causal sex encounters throughout adolescence and young adulthood ○ Sexual experimentation and experience is viewed as desirable ○ One marries for love • Positive development is viewed as: ○ Being able to carry learning forward ○ Viewing others are trustworthy ○ Viewing oneself as worthy of love ○ Leading to healthy adult and children relationships in the future 3) Discuss the function of dating in terms of the two stage-salient tasks of adolescence/emerging adulthood. ● Dating is key to the maturity gap stage of development, because it: ○ Defines identity  This involves knowing what one wants in life, including life partners  They need a stable, clear identity to know what they want ○ Establishes the relational foundations  This is needed for a successful long-term romantic relationship, in which children are born (family) ● Identity and relational learning is key to being able to recognize and be in a ‘true love’ relationship 4) What has changed in terms of sexual behaviour among teens? Discuss the reasons teens report for engaging in sexual intercourse. ● Despite much talk about promiscuity among youth, the percentage of youth who are having sex has not changed over the past 15 years ○ It remained stable over time ● The reasons for sex include: ○ Curiosity and readiness (main reason) ○ Push to ‘adult’behaviours, peer pressure, out of obligation ● The main change shown over the past 15 years, is in the increase in the number of sexual partners individuals have 5) Discuss how the sexual script has changed? ● We are moving away from sexual intercourse (vaginal) to other sexual behaviours in the sexual script, which include: ○ Oral/anal sex ● Generally, rates of vaginal intercourse have decreased as a way to preserve virginity ● These other sexual behaviours are: ○ Less of a big deal and some do not even consider it as sex ○ More mainstream and acceptable ○ Occurs two-times more 6) What is the “false-consensus effect”? ● False-consensus effect: cognitive bias whereby a person overestimates how much other people agree with them ○ They tend to overestimate the frequency of peer hookups ○ “Everyone else is having sex, so I should too” ○ There tends to a thought that others are having sex more often, than they really are ● This brings about negative personal attitudes, such as self-blame: ○ “Why aren’t I having as much sex as everyone else? What’s wrong with me?” 7) Discuss ___ reasons feminists have suggested that hook-up culture is not healthy for women. (Be sure to include rates where these are applicable.) ● The orgasm gap ○ Men orgasm 100% of the time, while women orgasm 32% of the time on the first hookup ○ However male orgasm tends to take precedence ● Women traditionally have greater interest in establishing longer-term relationships ○ Hookups are less likely to lead to long-term relationships ● Unequal balance of power in hookups scenarios ○ Hookups are compatible with the double standard, where men have ‘bragging rights’ ○ Women, however, experience a contradiction, since in this case they are viewed more lowly ● Is hookup culture an expression of the male sexual strategy with which females must comply if they are to be “normal” or be a “modern strong sexy woman”? ○ Consent is a grey area, where the individual says neither yes or no ● Hookups lead to a more vulnerable state ○ ¼ of hookups lead to rape ○ 78% of coerced sex occurred during hookups ○ It is debatable whether it activates sexual assault 8) If given a “case” of unclear communication about love (‘Ask Jimmy the bartender’), briefly discuss in terms of Sternberg’s model. ● The everyday language of love makes unclear distinctions ● Psychosocial theory of love ● 3 components of love: intimacy, commitment, passion ● The amount of love one experiences is a varying combination of each at varying intensities ● There are 7 forms of love that people can experience: ○ Liking: intimacy ○ Infatuation: passion ○ Empty love: commitment ○ Romantic love: intimacy and passion ○ Companionate love: intimacy and commitment ○ Fatuous love: passion and commitment ○ Consummate love: intimacy, passion and commitment 9) What is ‘consummate love’in the model? How does it emerge? (Explain your terms.) ● Consummate love is a combination of intimacy, passion and commitment ● It is the modern/Western ideal of love ○ It’s harder to maintain this relationship than attaining it ● The model is unclear on how consummate love emerges 10)How does love change over time? ● Passion builds and then fades after 1.5 years ● While intimacy and commitment continue to build 11) Identify 3 main functions of marriage & the family ● Marriage provides stable family unit where children are born ● Define inheritances ● Economic partnership ● It was more about property and politics than happiness and love 12)What is the current rate of divorce? What two factors discussed have had an impact. • The current rate of divorce is 41% in Canada ○ Marriage will end before the 30 year • Factors that have an impact on divorce rates include: ○ The meaning of marriage has changed  It used to be about political, social and/or economic arrangements  It was seen as a religious contract with God  Now love marriages are common ○ Marriage is seen as the greatest expression of love and commitment 13)Discuss ___ (e.g., four) factors that contribute to the rise in rates of separation/divorce. ● Increased expectations of marital and sexual fulfillment ○ It becomes more difficult to live up to high expectations set by spouses ● No-fault divorce in 1968 has lessened the stigma, and made divorce easier ○ Before this point, divorce was only acceptable for adultery and cruelty cases ○ Couples were forced to separate for 3 years before they were allowed to divorce, this time limit has been removed ● Increased economic independence of women ○ 50% of women have higher salaries than male partners ○ Relationship satisfaction has become more important than financial dependence ● Teen marriages are more likely to end in divorce ○ Individuals who marry young (approximate 20 year-olds) ● Low or high amount of education more likely to end in divorce ○ This is related to the amount of stress attributed to external factors by both groups ○ Those with high amounts of education tend to have lots of career-related stress ○ Those with low amounts of education tend to have lots of financial stress 14)What are the top 3 reasons for divorce listed in the Amatto (2003) study? ● Infidelity ● Incompatibility ● Alcohol/substances abuse 15)Identify and discuss ____ (e.g., two) consequences of divorce on the family. ● Divorce is large financial loss for both parties ○ Problems with receiving spousal and child support can occur ○ Financial challenges going forward for the party earning the least money ● Where will the children live? Is their consent important? ● It means the end of tradition, family vacations, holidays etc. ● Disruption of many shared relationships ○ Individuals who share relationships with both parties may be forced to choose sides in order to maintain relationships ● Parent conflict over issues post-separation ○ Such as issues pertaining to custody, remarriage, discipline etc. 16)Identify and discuss ____ (e.g., three) consequences of divorce on the children. Are the effects strong generally? ● Children from divorced families tended to have: ○ Lower academic achievement ○ Conduct problems ○ Psychological adjustment difficulties ○ Impaired social relationships ○ Poorer self-concept ○ Poorer relationship with own children when grow up ○ Lower psychological well-being ○ Lower socioeconomic attainment ○ Poorer marriage in the future ○ Increased divorce rate ● The effects from the studies were modest (small) 17)Describe the 4 components of an emotion. ● Feelings ● Physiological correlates ● Cognitions ● Goals 18)Describe the emotion hierarchy. What ages are the different levels associated with? ● At birth children tend to display negative and positive affect in terms of emotions ○ Their ability to display more emotions increases with age ● At 2-7 month, infants acquire basic/primary emotions, which include: ○ Love ○ Joy ○ Anger ○ Sadness ○ Fear ● After 2 years, children acquire secondary emotions, which include: ○ Infatuation, fondness ○ Bliss, pride, contentment ○ Annoyance, contempt, hostility ○ Agony, guilt, grief, loneliness ○ Horror, worry 19)Describe 3 broad ways in which emotions can be said to develop as children mature. Provide one example of a problem in this area for each. ● Development of positive emotions ○ Rudimentary smile at birth ■ Social smile at 6-7 weeks ■ Smiling at real people at 3 months ■ Big smiles with interactions and big belly laugh at 3-6 months ■ Smiles reserved for familiar companions at 6-7 months ● Development of negative emotions ○ General distress differentiates into specific negative emotions at 2 months ○ Anger and sadness emerge at 2-6 months ■ 4 months they become discrete emotions associated with physiological responses ○ Fear reactions ■ Is the last primary emotion to emerge at 6-7 months ■ Where a person/object/situation is viewed as a potential threat ○ Attachment-related emotions ■ Stranger anxiety emerges once a familiar attachment is established ■ Separation anxiety is a reaction to the loss of attachment figure ● Appears at 6-8 months ● Peaks at 14-18 months ● Declines thereafter 20)How do parents “socialize” their infants’emotional expression? Provide a cross-cultural example where parents encourage different socially desirable emotions. ● Parent socialization ○ Quicker to down-regulate negative emotions ○ Enjoy positive emotion and seek to promote them ○ Babies are trained to display the positive and suppress the negative emotions ● Cross cultural differences ○ Tribes from CentralAfrica socialize (reinforce) ‘calm contentment’ ○ This means the child is socialized to have low positive and negative emotions 21)Discuss the role of (parental) conversations around emotions. What do parents provide by way of these conversations, and with what results? ● We internalize our caregivers care into self-care ● Parents provide strategies and understanding about frightening, frustrating, or disappointing experiences ● Relationship between emotional understanding and social competence Midterm 2 Material 22)What is meant by the term attachment? ● Attachment ○ Is reciprocal ■ Infants become attached to parents ■ Parents become attached to infant ○ Aclose emotional relationship between 2 persons ○ It is characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity 23)What is the fundamental assumption of attachment theory? ● Humans have a deep need to seek and maintain attachment relationships ● Much of our experience of life is shaped by these relationships 24)Describe the measurement of attachment as involving two basic components. Describe these and how they fit with assessment in the Strange Situation. ● The measurement of attachment involves 2 basic components ○ Secure base: The use of a caregiver from which to explore the environment and to return for emotional support ○ Safe haven: Caregivers protect and comfort the infant when they are afraid or emotionally drained ● The association with the Strange Situation procedure ○ Secure base:  The infant explores the setting  The caregivers and infant’s interactions are observed  The infant uses the caregiver as a secure base to return to ○ Safe haven:  When a stressor is introduced, then the caregiver reunites with the child  The caregiver should be sensitive and responsive to the child’s distress  The child should be comforted by the caregiver  The child will then continue to explore 25)Describe the four categories of parent-child attachment [1 secure, 2 insecure, 1 no strategy]. ● Secure attachment ○ Occurs in 65% of infants ○ Caregiver is responsive and sensitive to the infant’s needs ○ The infant tries in the face of adversity ○ The infant asks for help when needed ○ The infant is not overly dependent on the caregiver ○ Fare better developmentally, than their insecure counterparts ● Avoidant attachment ○ Occurs in 20% of infants ○ Is a type of insecure attachment ○ The attachment system in this infant is deactivated ○ Caregiver is rejecting or over-stimulating the infant ● Resistant attachment ○ Occurs in 10% of infants ○ The attachment system in this infant is hyper-activated ○ Infant is ambivalent/hesitant of parent’s presence  They want their parent’s comfort, but feel they cannot use it ○ Caregiver is inconsistent with their parenting style ● Disorganized attachment ○ Occurs in 5-10% of infants ○ No strategy, absence of attachment ○ They show approach-avoidance behavior ○ Their behavior could be related to trauma or neglect ○ Their behavior could be related to the inability of developing a primary attachment ○ Caregiver physically abuses, neglects, or mistreats the infant 26)Describe two of the core questions in the AAI. What does the AAI assess? There is an analogous logic [comparableness] in assessing parent-child attachment in the SSn, and assessing adult attachment on the AAI. Discuss [for secure attachment] in terms of the two core attachment concepts. ● Core questions of theAdultAttachment Interview (AAI) include: 1) Describe the relationship with your parents 2) Choose 5 adjectives that describe your relationship with your parents. When you said this, are there any memories that come to mind with respect to this?  The focus is on discrepancies or coherence 3) To who are your closest? Why isn’t there this feeling with the other parent?  Focus is on determining which parent is the secure base 4) When you were upset, as a child, what would you do?  Focus is on determining whether a safe haven existed ● AAI assessed the degree of narrative coherence—which is the individuals capacity to tell a coherent story ● Assessing parent-child attachment in the strange situation is comparable to assessing adult attachment on theAAI, where ○ Secure remains secure ○ Preoccupied is resistant ○ Dismissing is avoidant ○ Fearful is disorganised/disoriented ● During AAI, the individual shows a secure attachment style if: ○ Discourse is open, free, coherent and collaborative ○ No contradiction between semantic and episodic memories ○ Recognition, acceptance, and forgiveness of imperfections and injustices in parents and in self ○ Integration of positive and negative feelings 27)Describe each of the four adult attachment categories. ● Secure attachment ○ Occurs when the model for others is positive and the model for self is positive ○ Free to explore positive and negative memories of past events ○ Able to be objective in their recollections of the past ○ Values relationships ○ Enjoys satisfying interpersonal relationships ○ Is self-sufficient and comfortable with intimacy ● Preoccupied attachment ○ Occurs when the model for others is positive and the model for self is negative ○ Overly involved and dependent ○ They desire intimacy but worry that partners do not care enough for them ○ Their emotions control them ○ They express negative emotions with aggression or passive aggression ○ They tend to disclose things easily and be overly sensitive ○ They are preoccupied with establishing secure emotional ties ● Dismissing attachment ○ Occurs when the model for others is negative and the model for self is positive ○ They are counter dependant and tend to be so self-sufficient they push other away ○ They see relationships as being non-essential ○ They have low levels of relational disclosure and emotional expression ○ They discount the relevance of early experiences on present functioning ○ They dismiss the importance of close emotional bonds ● Fearful attachment ○ Occurs when the model for others is negative and the model for self is negative ○ They often have unresolved traumas ○ They are fearful of intimacy because of fear of rejection ○ Communication tends to be passive, guarded and anxious ○ They have trouble expressing emotions and self-disclosing 28)According to class lecture, what three features define having a full (extended) sense of self. ● Three features that define having a full sense of self include: ○ The self is the same through time  Consists of autobiographical memory  Understanding that the present self is the same as the past and future self ○ The individual is distinct from the environment  They can act upon the environment ○ Self-conscious and self-awareness 29)What is the relation between a child’s acquisition of a belief-desire theory of mind and deceiving others (e.g., lying; explain with sufficient detail for 3 marks). ● The relation between a child’s acquisition of a belief-desire theory of mind and deceiving others ○ Begins with the understanding of false-beliefs  False beliefs occur when individuals hold inaccurate beliefs that can influence their behaviour ○ The understanding of the difference between a public and private self  Public self: aspects of an individual that others can see  Private self: inner or subjective aspects of self that others cannot see ● With both of these, the child understands that they can create false beliefs in others (lying) without the worry of being caught, since the truth is in their private thoughts 30)What three characteristics define narcissism in Baumeister’s view? ● Narcissism is characterised by self-worth that is: ○ Inflated ○ Unstable ○ Evaluatively dependent 31)Discuss the two views outlined in class re: the relationship between self-esteem and aggression. ● View 1: low self-esteem ○ Individuals project high self-esteem as a means of hiding their low self-esteem ○ Aggressive individuals retaliate against others as a means of raising their self-esteem ○ They put others down to feel better about themselves ● View 2: narcissism and aggression ○ The link between self-esteem and aggression is reflective of narcissism ○ These individuals are not trying to compensate for low self-esteem ○ Narcissists usually become aggressive when their ego is threatened 32)What do social-developmentalists mean when they refer to "extended self"? Povinelli (text pg. 173) makes a distinction between a present sense of self (at 2 years) from an extended sense of self that emerges at 4 or 5 years. What is the difference? ● Young children (usually less than 4 years old) ○ Are not aware of the self as stable entity ○ They think of the self as being in the present moment, with few regard to past and future self ● Extended self occurs at 3.5-5 years ○ Children are able to integrate past, present and future self-representations ○ Children understand that they are distinct from the environment ○ Children become self-conscious and self-aware ○ Occurs with the attainment of the belief-desire theory of mind 33)Why might someone in an individualist culture with many part-selves experience this as distressing? Be sure to define part- and false-selves. ● Part selves: there are several different ‘self’s that an person can have ○ Each self is different than the other, but altogether they combine to explain a unique person ○ An individualist person may find it distressing to find an identity when they have to organize and consider all their part-selves ● Authentic self: a sense of self that is based on spontaneous authentic experiences ● False self: a defence that is created to protect the authentic self Final Exam:Aggression (2 here) 34)Is bullying a problem in Canada? What are the effects of bullying on both the bully and the victim (provide two pieces of evidence for each)? th th ● Yes. Canada ranked 9 and 10 out of 35 countries on rates of bullying and victimization respectively ● The effect of bullying on bullies: ○ Bullies present with psychosocial difficulties ○ They are more likely to use alcohol and drugs ○ They have a
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