• Sport and exercise psychology researchers not only conduct research but also
present their findings at conferences and in refereed journals and books.
• Presentations and publications allow scholars to engage in discussions and
debates about the strengths and limitations of various theories, methods, and
• A third major role of the sport and exercise psychology specialist is to help
individuals, teams, and organizations improve performance, change physical
activity behaviour, manage sport and life demands, and enhance personal well-
• In Canada, many professional sport teams and national sport organizations
employ sport psychology consultants.
• In the United States, many major universities have full-time consultants, but this
is not the case in Canada.
• There are also consultants working in the fitness industry, in rehabilitation
settings, and progressively more in the business community.
• In Canada, there are very few individuals who make their living as full-time sport
and exercise psychology consultants.
• Sport and exercise psychology consultants tend to play three general roles.
• Educational consultants typically teach people psychological skills to facilitate
performance, increase exercise, and enhance well-being.
• Counselling consultants help people with developmental concerns, adjustment,
• Clinical psychology consultants can assist clients in educational and counselling
areas, but they also have special training in psychopathology.
Training to be a sport and exercise psychology specialist
• Since sport and exercise psychology is an interdisciplinary field, there are
multiple career pathways.
• To a large extent, educational training depends on what career path a person
• The APA provides some guidance on graduate training and career possibilities in
sport and exercise psychology.
• For simplicity, we will briefly describe two general training orientations: (1) sport