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Psychology of Death and Dying (PSYC 3570-DE) Practice Quest..
Psychology of Death and Dying (PSYC 3570-DE) Practice Questions and Answers

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3570
Erin Allard

Practice Questions Chapter 1 1. Individuals who are called “silencers” would do what? 2. Are there age/gender differences in death anxiety? Consider elders, adolescence, men and women. 3. Explain the early psychoanalytic theory of death anxiety in brief. 4. Explain the existential challenge of death anxiety in brief 5. Explain Becker’s terror management theory. 6. Explain edge theory. 7. Name the 6 things that have been mistaken for denial. Chapter 2 8. Explain Epicurus “The Garden” society. 9. Name the 5 Harvard Criteria. 10. Give examples of conditions that can be confused with death. 11. What did the report issued by the President’s Council on Bioethics (2008) remind of us? 12. What is the difference between death as an event and death as a state 13. Name the 7 types of death states and explain them 14. Name the 4 types of personifications of death and explain them 15. Explain 5 reasons by personifications can help individuals/societies cope with death 16. Explain death as the Great Leveler, Great Validator, Death Unites/Separates, Ultimate Problem/Solution, and Ultimate meaningless event Chapter 3 17. Name the 5 components of the death system and explain each 18. What are top 3 leading causes of death in the US today? 19. What are the leading cause of death for young adults? Chapter 4 20. When does dying begin? Name 4 reasons. 21. Explain the 3 trajectories of dying identified by Glaser-Strauss-Benolieil, as well as the 4 types of Expected Quick Trajectories. 22. Describe the Buddhist perspective 23. Describe Kuber-Ross’5 stages of dying and its shortcomings 24. Name the Charles Corr’s 4 challenges that dying people encounter Chapter 5 25. Explain adult respite care. 26. Explain hospice-inspired care for children and why it is not commonly used 27. What are the most common barriers to hospice care? Name 3 Chapter 6 28. What is advance directives and why does it have limited effectiveness 29. Explain the 2 transfers of power from state to individual that the ‘natural death act’ created 30. Explain the 5 factors that restrict the number of successful organ transplants 31. Where do organ donations primarily come from Chapter 7 32. Suicide is the ___ (number) leading cause of death worldwide and the ___ (number) cause in developing nations 33. The suicide rate is higher for ___ (gender) across all ages, predominantly ____ (race gender) 34. Suicide is the ____ (number) leading cause of death among youths (age 15-24) 35. Name 7 reasons that increase the suicide rate among people 36. Do children commit suicide? 37. Elderly ____ (race gender) remain the most vulnerable to suicide, especially those older than ___ (age) 38. Elders have a __ :___ ratio of suicide attempts to completion (caused them to die), compared to young adult’s ratio of __ :___, mainly because elders tend to use _____ as the most common mode of suicide 39. Name 5 high-risk stations for suicide. 40. Explain the following cultural meanings of suicide: Suicide sinful, Suicide as Weakness or Madness, Suicide as “The Great Death”, Suicide as RationalAlternative 41. Explain the sociological theory of suicide 42. Name the 4 types of suicide based on integration-solidarity theory 43. Explain the individual meanings of suicide: Suicide for reunion, suicide for rest and refuge, Suicide for revenge, Suicide as a Penalty for Failure and Suicide as a Mistake Chapter 8 44. The number one weapon of choice for homicides are ___, with ___ following in second place 45. _____ states continue to have the highest homicide rates, while ____ states have the lowest 46. Child abuse is attributed to ______ families, why? 47. ________ (race) children are at significantly higher risk 48. Every year there are about ____ parricides, or parents killed by their children, where the _____ (gender) tend to the perpetrator 49. Describe some observations made about terrorism Chapter 9 50. Euthanasia is also known as _________ and ____________ 51. Euthanasia is banned under the _______ oath 52. What are the assumptions based on the Hippocratic oath, are they true? 53. Define euthanasia (today) and its 3 types: active, passive and slow (also known as terminal sedation) 54. Summarize KarenAnn Quinlan’s Case and its importance 55. Summarize Nancy Cruzan’s Case and its importance 56. Summarize Terri Schiavo’s Case and its importance 57. What are the principle objections of the mainstream medical establishments to any form of assisted death? 58. What were Kevorkian’s standards? 59. Did Kevorkian’s actions match his standards? Why or why not? 60. Most abortions are performed in the first ___ (number) weeks of pregnancy, since its ____ (less/more) riskier to the pregnant women Chapter 10 61. Name the 3 age-related stages Maria Nagy established regarding children’s views of death 62. The basic understanding of death is done by age __ to __ 63. Most imaginary friends had entered the child’s life during the ______ years and exited around the time they entered ________ 64. Children dealing with parent bereavement usually display which things? 65. Children with PTSD are more likely than others to ___, ___, and ____ 66. Name 7 strategies that are used to help a child cope with bereavement 67. Name and explain the 5 stages that terminally ill children pass through in the acquisition of information 68. Define burnout Chapter 11 69. Define bereavement 70. Define grief 71. Give symptoms related to acute grief 72. Higher levels of _____, _____ and ____ are signs that grieving people are undergoing a destabilization of their physiological systems that place their health and survival at higher risk 73. Explain the different types of grief: Normal and complicated grief,Anticipatory grief, Resolved and Unresolved grief, and Hidden and Disenfranchised grief 74. Explain Freud’s Grief Work Theory 75. Explain how grief is related to Bowley’s attachment theory 76. The stage theory explains that there are 3 stages of grief, which include ____, _____ and ____, but it has been proven that individuals do not necessarily follow these stages 77. Ameaning-making perspective on grief discovered that individuals were able to get over death if it was _____ and not _____ 78. What are the 2 important aspects of grief as explained by the dual process theory 79. According to the evolutionary-biology model, grief is ________ 80. The immediate impact of spousal bereavement shows that women tend to feel more ___ and men feel more _____ 81. What are the three syndromes that were discovered from unresolved grief 82. Explain shadow grief: perinatal death 83. There is a greater risk of illness and death among _____ individuals Chapter 12 84. Describe the immediate post death activities 85. How does a typical funeral occur from the funeral director’s perspective 86. Spontaneous memorialization is the public’s response to _____ and ___ deaths and provides the community an opportunity to express their personal sorrow and compassion Chapter 13 87. _____ is associated with most afterlife beliefs, in which the body and soul are temporary companions with different purposes of fates 88. ____ shows that status and privilege should be preserved from life to the afterlife 89. ____ is a common but not universal understanding of the afterlife. It explains that death brings us to the moment of judgement in some but not all religions 90. Astudy conducted by theAARP showed that __ in 10 baby boomer believed in an afterlife, women more so (___ in 10) 91. ____ and ___ cultures believe in reincarnation, the idea of living more than one life 92. Explain near-death experiences 93. There are several empirical objections to interpreting near-death experiences (NDE) as evidence for survival, state a few 94. Name and explain the 3 dimensions Russell Noyes Jr. found in reports of life-threatening crisis 95. When is NDE more likely to occur? 96. What is G-LOC 97. Should we survive death? State 2 propositions from a radical perspective Chapter 15 98. Explain the origin of lullabies 99. ____ nation ranked the top with their modern hospice movement, followed by ____, ____ and ____ 100. Explain Proposition 1 of a Good Death 101. Explain Proposition 2 of Good Death 102. Explain Proposition 3 of Good Death 103. Explain Proposition 4 of Good Death 104. Explain Proposition 5 of Good Death Answers Chapter 1 1. Quick to end conversation of options for treatment and ways to end suffering 2. Age/gender differences o Elders = low death anxiety o Adolescence = high death anxiety o Women = high death anxiety peaking at 20 and again at 50 o Men = peaks at age 20 3. Thanotophobia: expressed fear of death that serves as a disguise for the actual source of discomfort o The actual source being fear of castration o Which could mean fear of losing value, love, society and being less than a whole person 4. Ontological confrontation: the awareness that we are always mortal o Where society helps us forget our mortality by making us believe we are part of something bigger than ourselves 5. Becker’s terror manage theory states that we try to control our death anxiety by o Evading it and pretending it doesn’t exist (fantasies) o Maintaining self-esteem o Becoming a part of an entity larger than ourselves, through religious beliefs and confidence 6. Edge theory by Kastenbaum distinguishes between our everyday low level of death anxiety and the vigilant state that is aroused when we encounter danger 7. Mistaken for denial o Selective attention o Selective response o Compartmentalizing o Deception o Resistance o Denial Chapter 2 8. In Epicurus’s “Garden”, like-minded people lived in equality and friendship o He offered a model for harmonious living, where the community did not care for either lives or death o He argued that the world has no purpose or rules 9. Harvard Criteria o Unreceptive and unresponsive o No movements (in breathing or muscles) o Reflexes are absent o Aflat EEG (no brain waves) o No circulation to/within the brain 10. Akinetic mustism, brain death, cataonia, coma, locked-syndrome, and minimally/ permanent/persistent/transient vegetative state 11. Aseverely impaired persons continues to interact with the world and can be fighting hard for survival 12. Event versus State o Event: something that occurs in a specific way and at a specific time and place  Death as an event makes it possible to be factual and precise o State: there are many definitions of death as a state  We cannot use facts to understand death as a state 13. Death states o An enfeebled form of life  The deceased becomes a repulsive and pitiable creature  The dead become equals o Acontinuation of life  Life as ongoing o Perpetual development  Life is an emergent quality from a universe that continues to transform itself  The mind is a quality that emerged from life o Waiting  After death, we wait  There are 3 phases: suspension, judgement and disposition o Cycling and recycling  Death as a temporary condition that alternates with life  Rebirth o Nothing  Death as total absence  It is the final cessation of life processes o Virtual and not really death after all  The internet provides another dimension of remembrance or possible replacement for interactions with the dead 14. The 4 types of personification are: o Macabre  Depicted as ugly, menacing, vicious and repulsive  Visualized as an old person  Terrifying being o Gentle comforter  Depicted as an older person  Model of serenity and welcome o Gay Deceiver  Young person with sexual allure, excitement and temptation  Cannot be trusted: is elusive, hypocritical, dishonest and persuasive o Automaton  Undistinguished and conservative in appearance  Matter-of-fact blandness, blank expression  Ordinary 15. Personifications can help individuals/societies cope with death by: o Objectifying an abstract concept o Expressing feelings that are difficult to put into words o Serving as communication o Absorbing some of the shock, pain, anger and fear that is experienced as a result of traumatic events o Providing symbols 16. Death as an agent of personal, political and social change o Death as the great leveler  Death has equal power over all human beings, despite social status and wealth in life o Death as the great validator  Death used to measure the value of its deceased members  Funerals demonstrate the worth of deceased individuals and their survivors o Death as the ultimate act of separation  Never seeing the familiar face again  Loss of loved ones o Death as the opportunity to rejoin others  Bringing friends and foes together  Reuniting loved ones with those ‘on the other side’ o Ultimate Problem  It ends our opportunity to achieve  Brings ends our inner experience o Ultimate Solution  As a means to resolve conflicts and protect the legitimate interests of society  Example: Hitler’s final solution of the Jewish problem as translated into mass genocide o Ultimate meaningless event  Random, senseless death  Example: fatal accidents Chapter 3 17. The 5 components of the death system include: o People  As potential components and whose occupations depends on death o Places  Cemeteries, funeral homes and hospitals have become identified with death o Times  Holidays that celebrate/remember the dead, such as Memorial Day and the Day of the Dead (Mexico) o Objects  Hearse, death certificate, noose, gallows, electric chair and nuclear devices are objects of death o Symbols and images  Death symbols tells us something about the cultures attitudes toward death, such as slow music  Words used and not used 18. Heart disease, cancer (lung cancer as leading cause of cancer death) andAlzheimer’s disease 19. Accidents and suicide Chapter 4 20. Dying begins when o The facts are recognized  For instance when diagnosed with a terminal illness o The facts are communicated  For instance when the physician breaks the news o The patient realizes or accepts the facts  When the patient does not forget/misinterpret facts or overestimate their probability of survival o Nothing more can be done to preserve life 21. The 4 trajectories of dying o Lingering trajectory  Dying individual is considered socially dead  Family members and friends stop visiting  Nurses keep the patient comfortable  Allows both the patient and family time to accept death, make plans and work through past conflicts/misunderstandings o Expected quick trajectory  Different patterns of staff interactions arise from different types of expected quick trajectories a) Pointed trajectory • Patients are exposed to risky procedures that might either save their lives or result in death • Staff have enough time to organize the procedure • Patient has the opportunity to exercise control of options b) Danger-period trajectory • Requires more watching and waiting • It is unknown whether the patient will survive a high-risk operation c) Crisis trajectory • The patient’s life is not in danger at the moment • However, the patient’s life might suddenly be threatened at any time d) Will-probably-die trajectory • Staff believe that nothing effective can be done • They aim to keep the patient comfortable  Salient features of the expected quick trajectory include:  Time urgency  Intense organization of treatment efforts  Rapidly shifting expectations  Volatile, sensitive staff-family interactions o Unexpected quick trajectory  Staff is upset by the patient whose life they had tried especially hard to save  The combination of time pressure and surprise can lead to institutional evasions 22. The Buddhist perspective consists of 8 stages: o Stage 1  Eyesight dims  One begins to have mirage-like visions o Stage 2  Hearing diminishes  Internal vision of smoke o Stage 3  Smelling diminishes  Mindfulness dissipates o Stage 4  Sensation lost from body  Breathing ceases  Scientifically dead o Stage 5  Visionary stages  White moonlight is perceived o Stage 6  Visions of red sunlight o Stage 7  Visions of darkness  Faints and awakens in final stage o Stage 8  Clear light of death appears 23. The stages begin when a person becomes aware of their terminal condition o Stages:  Denial • Fueled by anxiety • Lasted by a short amount of time  Anger • Wells up and boils over after initial shock and denial  Bargaining • May be between patient and caregivers, friends, family or God  Depression • Follows increasing weakness, discomfort and physical deterioration • Along with strain, stress, and feelings of guilt and unworthiness  Acceptance • Is the final stage o Shortcomings:  Existence of stages have not been demonstrated  No evidence has been presented that people actually move from stage 1 through 5  The limitations of the method have not been acknowledged  The line is blurred between description and prescription  The totality of the person’s life is neglected in favour of the supposed stages of dying  The resources, pressures and characteristics of the immediate environment can also make a tremendous difference 24. Corr identified 4 challenges that dying people encounter o The physical  Satisfying body needs and reducing stress o The psychological  Feeling secure, in control and still having a life to live o The social  Keeping valued attachments to other individuals and to groups and causes o The spiritual  Finding/affirming meaning, having a sense of connectedness, transcendence and hope Chapter 5 25. Respite care is a facility designed to give the family caregiver a ‘break’from their duties for a short-term period of time 26. Hospice-inspire care for children o Care for terminally ill children, which can include home care o It is not commonly used because  It violates our expectations in a society where many people live into advanced years  It involves the recognition of impending death of a young one  There is limited information on the program access 27. The most common barriers to hospice care include: o Physician’s difficulty with admission criteria or the reluctance to lose control of their patients o Insufficient family cooperation o Inadequate communication between health staff and patients/families Chapter 6 28. Advance directives o Are instructions for actions to be taken in the future if we are not able to speak for ourselves at the time, for example the living will o It has limited effectiveness because:  Of its lack of specificity  It can be difficult to honour the patient’s wishes and at the same time exercise one’s medical judgement in the actual ongoing situation  It isn’t always at the disposal of the physician, especially if it’s in a lawyer’s office elsewhere 29. These transfers of powers to the individual include: o The law recognizes a mentally competent adult’s right to refuse life support procedures o Individuals are entitled to select representatives who will see that their instructions are carried out if the individual is not able to do so 30. Five factors that restrict the number of successful transplantations include: o Willingness of people to donate o Condition of donated organs o Biological match between donor and recipient to avoid rejection o Whether the overall condition of the recipient is strong enough to ensure survival with the new organ o Expense and time delivery 31. The deceased contribute more than half of all organs, while victims of motor vehicle accidents are also available sources of organ donation Chapter 7 th th 32. 13 worldwide and 10 in developing nations 33. Males, white males 34. 3rd 35. Suicide rate is higher among people who: o Suffer from depression or other psychiatric problems o Use alcohol when depressed o Suffer from physical, especially irreversible illness o Deal with challenges and frustrations in an impulsive way o Are divorced o Have lost an important relationship through death or break-up o Live in certain areas of the country 36. Children do think about death and are affected by uncertainties and frustrations of life o Around third grade, many children have a clear understanding of suicide o Most that do attempt or speak about doing so aren’t taken seriously by adults 37. White males, 85 38. 4:1, 20:1, firearms 39. High-risk situations for suicide include: o Suicides increases after a natural or man-made disaster o People with HIV/AIDS are at higher risk for suicide o Gambling is associated with higher risk for suicide o School-yard bullies increase the suicide rate of their victims o “Suicide by cop” refers to an armed suicidal person confronting a police officer with the intent of forcing the officer to shoot in self-defence 40. Cultural meanings of suicide o Suicide sinful  Condemned by the Catholic church  It prevents the individual to repent for their sins  The 6 commandment tells us “Thus shalt not kill”, self-murder is not ex
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