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Final

D&D Exam Study Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3570
Professor
Jennifer Mc Taggart
Semester
Winter

Description
Exam Outline11 QsWeek 1Chapter 12FFTCanadian Attitudes About Death7 QsWeek 2Chapter 3 FFT Canadas Deadliest National Disasters6 QsWeek 3Chapter 4 FFT in Flanders Fields6 QsWeek 4Chapter 5 FFT The History of Hospice Palliative Care7 QsWeek 5Chapter 6 FFT Organ Donation in Canada7 QsWeek 6Chapter 7 FFT Suicide Demographics7 QsWeek 7Chapter 8 FFT Murder8 QsWeek 8Chapter 9 FFT Abortion8 QsWeek 9Chapter 10 FFT ChildrenDeath7 QsWeek 10Chapter 11 FFT The Least Helpful Things To Say To The Recently Bereaved6 QsWeek 11Chapter 12 FFT Mort ou Vif10 QsWeek 12Chapter 1315FFT Belief in AfterlifeChapter 1As We Think About DeathHistory of DeathPhillipe Aries influential work 1981 energized the study of death from a historical perspectivehe attempted to reconstruct European death attitudes focusing on the thousand years after the introduction of Christianity up to present timefocused on burial practisesAries extracted four psychological themes from his observations1 Awareness of the individual2 The defense of society against untamed nature3 The belief in an afterlife4 The belief in the existence of evildeath was community event in earliest human societies where a community tribe would be weakened by the loss of an individual death of the individual was tameritualization was a way of protecting fragile human society from the uncontrollable perils of nature and the godsdanger resided in potential harm from the dead who might rise with a vengeancedead were tamed by requiring them to return only under specific occasionsearly Christian dead were called peaceful sleepers and were not spoken ill of thema thousand years into the Christian era the death of the self became the most intense concernquality of life was improving so people did not want to surrender their luxuriesthe hour of death became the most important hour of lifeAve Maria became a fervent prayer for a good deathdeath was makeorbreak with destinybody and face of dead were now covered taken apart from naturetwisted deathrationalism and science were contributing to an increasingly progressive and sophisticated worldview at the same time death became entwined with violence and sexualityfear of being buried alive spreadsinto prominence came the death of the othergrowing importance of family life and privacydeath became more personal individual grief breaking through communal ritualwhat the survivors mourned was no longer the fact of dying but the physical separation from the deceaseddeath no longer tame or wild viewed as a beautiful adventure attitude change came from dismissal of purgatory Hell and an eternity of sufferingHeaven became a reunion with loved onesththe invisible death in the 19 century and continues its dominance todaydeath became dirty then it became medicalizeddeath considered failure people protected others from knowledge of their imminent deathavoidance misrepresentation and denial caused by this attitudepeople now died in neither grace nor in peril of damnation also no longer a sacred passageNot Thinking about Death a Failed Experimentmedia uses the term passes away rather than diedthe moment of death belongs to the doctor not the dying person and the bereavedsuicide rates doubled then tripled among the young and remained high among older adultsListening and CommunicatingAttitude of when your times up its up is called fatalism outcomes are determined in advancethose who are quick to end the conversation of options for treatment and ways to end suffering are called the silencerfatalistic attitudelifestyle choicesno use in taking protective measures increases chances of death of self and of others pg 9Attitudes Experiences Beliefs Feelingstotal view of death from knowledge attitudes experience feelings personal experienceattitudes beliefs and feelingsAttitudes refer to our action tendenciesBeliefs worldwide view eg fatalismFeelings provide us with qualitative information a status report on our sense of beingsome people have an inner relationship with death having the sense of being dominated or haunted by deathPROFOUND DIFFERENCE between people who have experienced death and those who havent death is a distant topic or even just a wordpg 15How Does State of Mind Affect DeathRelated BehaviourThe Living Willpeople see their deaths as faroff and therefore do not complete will documentsnow part of hospital policyOrgan Donation Cardfew people decide to sign and carry organ donor cardsnondonors tend to be more anxious about deathpeople who sign donor cards are more selfreliant and want to save a persons lifeStepping Off The Curbpedestrians stood at street corners waiting to cross the roadtype A people were the safest and waited for the light to change looked in both directions then briskly crossedtype B crossed in the middle of the block stepped out between parked cars with traffic lights against them and did not look for oncoming trafficthe street crossing behaviour correlated with their overall attitudes towards risk takinghigh risk pedestrians judged that they put their lives at risk 16 of the time in an average week compared to 2 percent for the nonrisk takerstype E are 4 times more likely to have contemplated suicide and have higher frustration levels with lifeIn God They Trustthose with positive religious coping styles experience less pain and distress also able to draw on social supportdoubt and conflict in religious beliefs have a negative effect on health outcomesMan is MortalThe Death of Ivan Ilych by Leo Tolstoy Ivans friend Peter dies Peters friend Ivan dies1Peter already knows of Ivans death only on viewing the corpse does he truly realize the death and then feels vulnerable to death himself2He becomes concerned for himself and loses his feelings towards the man who died and for the mans wife3Cannot admit that he has lost concern for these people hopes to leave the house of death and leave death behind him4Differentiates himself from the man who died5Once over his panic he is able to talk about the death of the man but is more interested in the details than the feelings and meaningsAnxiety Denial and Acceptance Three Core ConceptsDeath Anxietyanxiety is a condition that seeks its own reliefdenial is one form of avoiding death anxiety that has received the most attention from counsellorsDenialrejection of the certain key features of reality in the attempt to reduce anxietyIvan denies the fact that he is mortal like Peter to distance himself from the deathAcceptancenot clear what is meant by acceptancewhat should we acceptdoes a good death require acceptancesorrow is oriented toward the past anxiety toward the futureStudies and Theories of Death AnxietyLimitations1Low scores on death anxiety scales are difficult to interpret because it is unknown if it shows low anxiety or high denial2Little is known about the most adaptive level of death anxiety3College students are overrepresented4Oneshot affair respondents may answer differently at a different timeMajor Findings of Death AnxietyHow much do we fear deathpeople do not consider themselves to be very anxious about death as they go about their everyday lives
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