A Many research findings discovered through educational psychology research is
sometimes considered to be well known already, and pathetically obvious.
many people look at research findings and say, “everybody knows that”
B – One e.g., in a now classic study, students were examined to determine the best
strategies for classroom management
when students were standing up out of seats when supposed to be sitting
C.S says to tell the student to sit down each time they stand up
R.S findings say these behaviours should be ignored, and teachers should praise the
students who are sitting down to decrease the behaviour.
the more times the teacher said sitdown, the more the child stood up.
C – dangers of assumptions:
When a principle is stated and explained in simplistic terms it appears to be a simplistic
concept (e.g., when a pro athlete plays their sport and makes it look easy)
in this case we only see the results and none of the work that went into it,
making any research finding appear to be common sense.
What is important is not what sounds sensible but how the theories perform when put
under test conditions. By looking just at common sense aspect, we ignore the result and
how the theory actually holds up in practice, instead of just assuming its correct because
“we already knew that”.
By basing research off of assumptions, results in the lesser validity and quality of
practice and policy which would result in worse outcomes.
D Empirical research in ed. Psych. Justify positions that are felt to be based on ideology
Research put into better perspective; statistics help improve understanding and
demonstrate the correct ideas/counteract false beliefs] Study found two research findings
that were judged retrospectively were both considered to be obvious, showing that just by
reading something put into simple words, people assume it is just common knowledge.
Rationale for evidence provides these obvious things to appear less obvious.
Will lead to better decisions more effective policy and better factual outcomes.
E Reluctant b/c may feel it is taking away from experienced teachers and telling them to
not use personal judgement
many think that if research is not experimental, it is not valid.
experimental research more vigorous and enhances educational research but
everything else is inaccurate.
May bring students to see correlation as causation if teachers apply researched concepts
Question 3 A 4 FORMS AGGRESSION
Instrumental : to get something wanted, no intent to harm but process of getting what is
wanted may subject others to harm
Hostile : Intent to harm
Overt – physical threats or attacks
Relational – attack of social relationships
B Boys – have trouble reading purpose behind others behaviours, and believe violent
pay back is appropriate. More physically violent, and resot to overt aggression most
Girls Less physically aggressive than boys, tend to use relational aggression more
often, which can result in more harmful outcomes than overt.
C Relationship approach to bullying intervention – when problems are noted, teachers
are to examine the relationships that the students involved are a part of, both positive
and negative for family, peers, community and other social contexts.
a. Adv. – social architecture – examine group dynamics and improve them
for bully, victim and bystander and decrease negative group dynamics.
b. Adv. – protect and support the development of healthy relationships in
order to decrease bullying and harassment
Teachers and parents as models for behaviour; relationship skills included, create
contexts that children can encompass.
D Scaffolding: Providing support and directed instruction to student and learning
process / problem solving in attempts to have them function above normal levels and
in hopes to foster independence.
E Scaffolding in bullying intervention provides students with skills/capacities and social
cognitions to move out of negative roles and into healthy relationships.
Research shows that scaffolding can be programmatic, but is mostly moment to
moment and needs to be used for both victim and bullying. E.gs include before
school, parents advising victim to practice how they are going to go to their
friends at lunch today in a way that will avoid the bullying situation. And for
bullies, parents can remind them at home to stop and think (how effect others)
Bullies scaffolding for relationship skills
Victims – scaffolding for finding strengths and weaknesses in the situation they are in
F To manage this student:
a. – I Messages: how his behaviours are effecting me and how I feel, and
child can voluntarily make a change which they often do
b. Assertive Discipline: not hostile or passive, but in a nonjudgmental or
accusatory way, let the child know the behaviour will not be expected. E.g
tell that I care too much about students and learning process to let this
i. Research studies question this method in past. Preferred penalty
approach. Now, research findings conclude that development of morals in students is not knowing the rules, or even obeying them
but knowing the reasons behind certain behaviours, so they know
when they are appropriate and when they are not.
c. Communication with family: keep contact with family over phone and go
over detailed behaviour reports. Make sure they know rules of classroom
and send home positive notes and feedback when the child works well in
A Discrepancy based definition of LD: Bases learning abilities on IQ, and when there is
a discrepancy between IQ and Achievement, it is considered a LD.
B Students not well served by this b/c moving students away from education they need:
a. Implied as primary component of diagnosis, focus is on IQ level not
b. Must fail or fall behind proposed level of what is predicted as ‘normal’
c. Not reliable until age 9
i. Wait to fail
1. Research: shows children who are poor readers at age 9 are
still poor readers in adulthood
a. Earlier ID is needed
C RTI model – Identifies LD earlier, and document what works and what doesn’t work
for students. Identifying early so they don’t fall behind before their problems are
D 3 benefits to RTI:
Early ID (Kindergarten, January)
Risk model, rather than conflict model (students that are classified as at risk
moved to receive intensive instruction and if this helps, no further action is taken,
if its still not helpful, considered for special education)
Reduce biases in the classroom (early screening will decrease disproportionate
representations that come from assumptions held by teachers)
Research: Girls diagnosed less than boys, even though they are less
likely to have a reading LD. (RTI = accurate representation of groups).
E 3 challenges of RTI
Costly (train specialists as they perform the tests)
Environment and Continuum (Based of general education classrooms that
are manipulated depending of the test used, and then placed on a continuum
in which LD is a specific point)
Deficit as reason for response (looks at students not responding well to
teaching methods as a deficit [LD] rather than instruction based) FDiscrepancy more realistic for today, only 1 test, economic times don’t have funds
for such large scale training, would have to create measures for all of the subjects in
the elementary grades as right now just applies to reading. Already well known and
used, and implementing RTI instead would require large shift in education system.
A CRP: excellent teaching for all students including those from minorities. Good
teaching for these students includes academic success, develop/maintain cultural
competence and conscious challenges to the status quo.
Research: Excellent teacher nominations in African American school setting:
parents nominated those who respected them, enthusiasm, and understood
children had to learn to live in two diff worlds (black and white) and teachers
nominated those with low disciplinary reports, high attendance and high test
B Banks 5:
Context integration – integrate concepts from variety of cultures when using
examples in classrooms
Knowledge construction – Teaching students how the cultural assumptions of a
discipline effects how the knowledge of the discipline is constructed within it.
Prejudice reduction – learn of students attributions to culturally diverse students and
find ways to change them through teaching
Equity pedagogy – match teaching styles to learning styles to facilitate achievement
for all students
Empowering school culture/ social structure – looking at groups within the schools,
sports teams teacher student relations etc. and find ways to create a school culture and
structure that supports and empowers all students.
C 2 changes to preservice teaching to promote multicultural education:
Acknowledgement and awareness of diverse cultures and focus on increased
sensitivity and awareness to diverse issues. Learn about their perceptions and how they
might impact students.
Prepare teachers to work with diverse students through bringing in staff that are
from diverse backgrounds that have appropriate attitudes and multicultural knowledge
that they can pass on the predominantly white preservice teachers.
Maximizes opportunities and minimizes challenges and teachers will learn how
the work effectively with diverse students.
D True multicultural education: Not fully. There will always be some aspect of a culture
that is unknown to someone from another. But to work towards it can:
eliminate the blinders that come from stereotypes, rac